Thursday, January 17, 2008

Human Milk and Formula Ingredient List

Now also available in Romanian at: Lapte matern vs formula de lapte praf

These two lists were developed by Cecily Heslett, Sherri Hedberg and Haley Rumble as a student project for the Breastfeeding Course for Health Care Providers at Douglas College in New Westminster, BC, Canada in 2007. You can view the full pdf poster students created here. Note that we are still discovering new 'ingredients' in human milk each year. The science of lactation is relatively new and there is still a significant amount that we do not understand, and have not yet solved. It is very possible that the ingredient list for human milk is three times this length, with special factors we may not unfold for years to come.

Above: Human Milk


FORMULA INGREDIENTS

Water
Carbohydrates
Lactose
Corn maltodextrin Protein
Partially hydrolyzed reduced minerals whey protein concentrate (from cow’s milk) Fats
Palm olein
Soybean oil
Coconut oil
High oleic safflower oil (or sunflower oil) M. alpina oil (Fungal DHA)
C.cohnii oil (Algal ARA) Minerals
Potassium citrate Potassium phosphate Calcium chloride Tricalcium phosphate Sodium citrate Magnesium chloride Ferrous sulphate
Zinc sulphate Sodium chloride Copper sulphate Potassium iodide Manganese sulphate Sodium selenate
Vitamins
Sodium ascorbate Inositol
Choline bitartrate Alpha-Tocopheryl acetate Niacinamide
Calcium pantothenate Riboflavin
Vitamin A acetate Pyridoxine hydrochloride Thiamine mononitrate Folic acid
Phylloquinone
Biotin
Vitamin D3
Vitamin B12
Enzyme Trypsin
Amino acid Taurine
L-Carnitine (a combination of two different amino acids) Nucleotides
Cytidine 5-monophosphate
Disodium uridine 5-monophosphate Adenosine 5-monophosphate Disodium guanosine 5-monophosphate
Soy Lecithin


HUMAN MILK INGREDIENTS

Water
Carbohydrates (energy source)
Lactose
Oligosaccharides (see below) Carboxylic acid
Alpha hydroxy acid Lactic acid
Proteins (building muscles and bones) Whey protein
Alpha-lactalbumin
HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumour cells)
Lactoferrin
Many antimicrobial factors (see below) Casein
Serum albumin Non-protein nitrogens
Creatine
Creatinine
Urea
Uric acid
Peptides (see below)
Amino Acids (the building blocks of proteins)
Alanine Arginine Aspartate Clycine Cystine Glutamate Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lycine Methionine Phenylalanine Proline
Serine
Taurine
Theronine
Tryptophan
Tyrosine
Valine
Carnitine (amino acid compound necessary to make use of fatty acids as an energy source)
Nucleotides (chemical compounds that are the structural units of RNA and DNA) 5’-Adenosine monophosphate (5”-AMP)
3’:5’-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3’:5’-cyclic AMP)
5’-Cytidine monophosphate (5’-CMP)
Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP choline) Guanosine diphosphate (UDP)
Guanosine diphosphate - mannose
3’- Uridine monophosphate (3’-UMP) 5’-Uridine monophosphate (5’-UMP) Uridine diphosphate (UDP)
Uridine diphosphate hexose (UDPH)
Uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-hexosamine (UDPAH) Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA)
Several more novel nucleotides of the UDP type
Fats Triglycerides
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (important for brain development) Arachidonic acid (AHA) (important for brain development) Linoleic acid
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Conjugated linoleic acid (Rumenic acid)
Free Fatty Acids Monounsaturated fatty acids
Oleic acid Palmitoleic acid Heptadecenoic acid
Saturated fatty acids Stearic
Palmitic acid Lauric acid Myristic acid
Phospholipids
Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylinositol Lysophosphatidylcholine Lysophosphatidylethanolamine Plasmalogens
Sphingolipids Sphingomyelin
Gangliosides GM1 GM2 GM3
Glucosylceramide Glycosphingolipids Galactosylceramide Lactosylceramide Globotriaosylceramide (GB3) Globoside (GB4)
Sterols Squalene
Lanosterol Dimethylsterol Methosterol
Lathosterol Desmosterol Triacylglycerol Cholesterol 7-dehydrocholesterol Stigma-and campesterol 7-ketocholesterol Sitosterol
β-lathosterol
Vitamin D metabolites Steroid hormones
Vitamins Vitamin A
Beta carotene Vitamin B6
Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Vitamin B12 Vitamin C
Vitamin D Vitamin E
a-Tocopherol Vitamin K
Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
Folic acid Pantothenic acid Biotin
Minerals Calcium
Sodium Potassium Iron
Zinc Chloride Phosphorus Magnesium Copper Manganese Iodine Selenium Choline Sulpher Chromium Cobalt Fluorine Nickel
Metal
Molybdenum (essential element in many enzymes)
Growth Factors (aid in the maturation of the intestinal lining) Cytokines
interleukin-1β (IL-1β) IL-2
IL-4
IL-6
IL-8
IL-10
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)
Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Hepatocyte growth factor -α (HGF-α)
HGF-β
Tumor necrosis factor-α
Interferon-γ
Epithelial growth factor (EGF)
Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)
TGF β1
TGF-β2
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (also known as somatomedin C) Insulin-like growth factor- II
Nerve growth factor (NGF)
Erythropoietin
Peptides (combinations of amino acids) HMGF I (Human growth factor) HMGF II
HMGF III
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
β-endorphins
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) β-defensin-1
Calcitonin
Gastrin
Motilin
Bombesin (gastric releasing peptide, also known as neuromedin B) Neurotensin
Somatostatin
Hormones (chemical messengers that carry signals from one cell, or group of cells, to another
via the blood) Cortisol
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (also known as thyrotropin) Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)
Prolactin
Oxytocin
Insulin
Corticosterone
Thrombopoietin
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
GRH
Leptin (aids in regulation of food intake)
Ghrelin (aids in regulation of food intake)
Adiponectin
Feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL)
Eicosanoids
Prostaglandins (enzymatically derived from fatty acids) PG-E1
PG-E2
PG-F2 Leukotrienes
Thromboxanes
Prostacyclins
Enzymes (catalysts that support chemical reactions in the body)
Amylase Arysulfatase Catalase Histaminase
Lipase
Lysozyme PAF-acetylhydrolase Phosphatase Xanthine oxidase
Antiproteases (thought to bind themselves to macromolecules such as enzymes and as a result prevent allergic and anaphylactic reactions)
a-1-antitrypsin
a-1-antichymotrypsin
Antimicrobial factors (are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.
Leukocytes (white blood cells) Phagocytes
Basophils Neutrophils Eoisinophils
Macrophages Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes (also known as B cells)
T lymphocytes (also known as C cells)
sIgA (Secretory immunoglobulin A) (the most important antiinfective factor) IgA2
IgG
IgD
IgM
IgE
Complement C1
Complement C2
Complement C3
Complement C4
Complement C5
Complement C6
Complement C7
Complement C8
Complement C9
Glycoproteins
Mucins (attaches to bacteria and viruses to prevent them from clinging to mucousal tissues)
Lactadherin
Alpha-lactoglobulin
Alpha-2 macroglobulin
Lewis antigens
Ribonuclease
Haemagglutinin inhibitors
Bifidus Factor (increases growth of Lactobacillus bifidus - which is a
good bacteria)
Lactoferrin (binds to iron which prevents harmful bacteria from using the
iron to grow)
Lactoperoxidase
B12 binding protein (deprives microorganisms of vitamin B12)
Fibronectin (makes phagocytes more aggressive, minimizes inflammation, and repairs
damage caused by inflammation) Oligosaccharides (more than 200 different kinds!)

See Also:
Microscopic View of Human Milk, Cow's Milk and Formula



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13 comments:

  1. Well.... our milk was designed for baby development and survival, so yeah, I am not surprised it has everything we need to develop lol.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Christine AllisonDecember 13, 2011 2:29 PM

    Incredible and fascinating!! Our bodies are amazing!

    ReplyDelete
  3. How would human milk have whey protein? Especially if mom doesn't consume dairy, how is that possible?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Whey protein is essentially globular proteins (spheroproteins) - proteins formed by compacted amino acid chains manufactured in the body of female mammals (humans included) to feed young. 60-80% of human milk is whey protein. The other primary protein in the milk of mammals is casein. Casein is significantly lower in human milk, whereas it is significantly higher in cow's milk, making cow milk tough for human babies to digest, and making human milk unfit for feeding to baby cows...

      All mammals have some whey protein in their milk - it is merely in different compositions depending on the mammal and the needs of that species' young.

      Delete
  4. wow fascinating indeed

    ReplyDelete
  5. Vitamin D is supplied by the SUN (This is why so many children are now diagnosed with lack of vitamin D....) GEE I wonder why ????!!!!!.... FACT you actually have to have contact with the sun for at least 20 mins per day without sunscreen !!!!!!!! thats right without sunscreen......

    ReplyDelete
  6. Unlike humans God knows what He is doing and why!

    ReplyDelete
  7. WOW!! Awesome. I absolutely loved Breastfeeding, I miss it very much:-)

    ReplyDelete
  8. vitamin d is also supplied in food.. such as salmon. it's not just the sun.

    ReplyDelete
  9. How many calories are in 100 grams of human milk?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. How calorie rich a mother's milk is depends on several factors and varies from woman to woman. So there is not one right answer to this question.

      Delete
  10. What in the world is water carbohydrates?! That doesn't sound like a real thing.

    ReplyDelete
  11. I think that is a mistake. There are mistakes with the line breaks in the breastmilk list. The "carbohydrates" should be on a separate line.

    ReplyDelete

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