An ‘On-Demand’ Life and the Basic Needs of Babies

By Mary Tarsha and Dr. Darcia Narvaez


On-demand services may have spoiled parenting! Yes, by their convenience. For example, we no longer have to plan our schedule around the airing of our favorite program or make efforts to record a particular show. With a few clicks we can escape into streaming thousands of movies (and other forms of entertainment) from our TV, computer, or mobile device. We can use Google to answer a question about almost anything. We can order ahead from a favorite restaurant and our order will be ready when we arrive. An Uber is just around the corner. We don’t have to wait, or slow down our pace. We can stay focused on our own needs and goals. Always thinking ahead.

How does this fast pace focused on getting the next thing done influence our relationships? If we are tilted forward towards checking off the next thing on our list, can we really be in the present moment? Why does it matter? A present-moment focus is linked to happiness (e.g., mindfulness). But it is also required for being a good friend and a good parent.

Being emotionally present is especially important with those who are still learning to be human—babies and young children. They operate at a slower pace and expect caregivers to be with them in the moment (notice how your young child will start to demand attention when you are on the phone—which is probably why we evolved to have a village of caregivers and playmates!)

When we get used to things on demand we start to think that everyone should act accordingly. We lose patience with people who move too slow and or take too long. We can start to think that babies should conform to our preferences on demand too. But they cannot. They follow an inner compass of growth and development. Practically speaking, tending to the needs of babies means meeting their needs in the here and now, not demanding that they conform to adult schedules. Their basic needs are many and include the components of what we call the evolved nest: on-request breastfeeding, extensive affectionate touch, self-directed play and quick responsiveness (see previous post here). When an infant receives care that satiates needs as they arise, with a present-moment focus from the parent or caregiver, the infant develops normally, along a healthy trajectory, into adulthood.

Why does early experience matter so much? Because as the infant’s needs are met, the neuronal architecture of the brain and neurobiological systems are supported as they are developing rapidly, enabling proper functioning. At a very basic level, babies are self-actualizing when their needs are met—they are getting support to follow the inner guidance system that Maslow found so important for self-actualization to occur. Maslow agreed with psychoanalytic theory that the thwarting of the self, of one’s normal path to self-actualization, occurs in early life from the betrayal in relationships. When we don’t provide the evolved nest, it is a betrayal to babies’ soul/spirit/being.

Meeting basic needs in the early years carries long-term benefits that protect the child throughout life, physiologically and psychologically. Adults who received nurturing and responsive care environments in their early years demonstrate greater resilience to stressful situations, better immune functioning, less anxiety and overall, fewer physical health problems (Shonkoff et al., 2012). There is a plethora of research from neuroscience, developmental psychology, molecular biology, chemistry, genomics and sociology validating the importance of early care experiences upon brain development, specifically the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, critical parts of the brain that control learning, memory, and behavior (Suderman, 2012; Champagne & Meaney, 2007; Gunnar & Quevedo, 2007).

Recognizing the overwhelming, converging evidence from an array of disciplines, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a report in 2012 addressing the importance of early care experience for adult health. The report encourages all pediatricians to be the “front-line guardians of child development” because “many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life” (Shonkoff, 2012, p.2). The AAP is calling for a greater awareness of the importance of early care experiences, proclaiming that many adult diseases begin in early life and more emphasis should be given to providing healthy environments to infants and children.


Unmet Needs = Toxic Stress

So, what happens when an infant’s needs are not met? The Answer: potential toxic stress is created. Toxic stress and traumatic attachments in early life influence brain development, specifically the right hemisphere, resulting in:


  • An inability to regulate emotional states under stress, including regulating fear-terror states 
  • dysregulation of the “fight or flight” system (part of the Autonomic Nervous System) dysregulated “flight” systems results in PTSD and dysregulated “fight” systems potentially leads to aggression disorders 
  • dysregulation of the vagus nerve which connects with major body systems and governs social capacities (Porges, 2017) 
  • personality disorders in early adulthood (Schore, 2003).


In short, the individual is stunted or thwarted in reaching their full potential. Long-lasting effects include both personality and emotion regulation disorders. Deprivation of basic needs in the early years of life leads to an internal divisiveness; children become divided within themselves and divided against the world (Narvaez, 2016). It pushes the child off the trajectory for self-actualization.

There is evidence that suggests that deprivation of basic needs (neglect or undercare) may be more detrimental than physical abuse. Neglected children demonstrate more severe cognitive and academic deficits, social withdrawal, limited peer interactions and internalizing problems compared to children who were physically abused (Hildyard & Wolfe, 2002).

Meeting Basic Needs Buffers Against Toxic Stress

Supportive and responsive care has a profound role in mitigating the effects of adverse (stressful) experiences (The National Scientific Council of the Developing Child, 2011). A nurturing and responsive environment is a buffer against toxic stress, helping the infant return to baseline (non-stressed condition) and consequently, continue along an adequate developmental trajectory (for species-typical normal development, the full evolved nest would need to be provided). However, if supportive and responsive care is not provided in the midst of stressful events, toxic stress ensues, and severe traumatic attachments can develop.

A Practical Suggestion for Young Child Care

What is one practical way to increase the quality of infants’ early care experiences? Build extra time into the family’s schedule. Create buffers of time around scheduled events in the caregiving routine. For example, if you need to leave the house by a certain time, factor in an extra 15-20 minutes as a buffer. In this way, if the infant or child requests to nurse, needs a diaper change, needs extra play time, or more affectionate touch, these needs can be met in a non-stressed manner. Extra pockets of time allow the caregiver to meet the infant’s needs, safeguarding against an “on-demand” mentality but also, may diminish the caregiver’s stress. A parent or caregiver that is less stressed and anxious is able to be more responsive to the infant’s need, picking up on subtle cues from their baby. Less mental and emotional energy is dedicated to navigating the schedule (trying to get the infant/child out the door on time), freeing the caregiver to be nurturing, warm and responsive in the here and now, safeguarding against an “on-demand” mentality toward infants. Thus, built in buffers of time have the two-fold benefit of ameliorating caregiving stress and facilitating the meeting of the infant’s needs.

Early Investment in Baby has Long-Term Benefits

When infants and children are not treated with warm, responsive care, bad things happen. However, when they are given a healthy start with responsive, stable and nurturing relationships around them, infants flourish into happy and healthy adolescents and adults. Many pitfalls are avoided and the long-lasting consequences of learning disabilities, emotional disorders and physical health conditions are averted. Investing in infants provides a return of better health and happiness!

What if you didn’t meet your child’s needs in the early years? Even if your child is older, you can begin providing responsive and nurturing care now. See this post about promoting thriving in school-aged children. Physical and emotional health is one of the greatest gifts to any child. All is takes is some time, warmth and responsiveness to their needs.



Related Reading

More on what scholars say about early nurturing here.

How raising babies is different from raising children.

More on what babies need here.

Also by Dr. Narvaez at Peaceful Parenting:

Where Are All the Happy Babies?

The Dangers of Crying It Out

Psychology Today series on infant circumcision


References

Champagne, F. A., & Meaney, M. J. (2007). Transgenerational effects of social environment on variations in maternal care and behavioral response to novelty. Behavioral neuroscience, 121(6), 1353.

Gunnar, M. R., & Quevedo, K. M. (2007). Early care experiences and HPA axis regulation in children: a mechanism for later trauma vulnerability. Progress in brain research, 167, 137-149.

Hildyard, K. L., & Wolfe, D. A. (2002). Child neglect: developmental issues and outcomes. Child abuse & neglect, 26(6), 679-695.

Narvaez, D. (2016). Embodied morality: Protectionism, engagement and imagination. Springer.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Brain: Working Paper #3. Available at: https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/wp3/.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Early Relational Trauma, Disorganized Attachment, and the Development of a Predisposition to Violence. Healing Trauma: Attachment, Mind, Body and Brain (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology), 107.

Shonkoff, Jack P., Andrew S. Garner, Benjamin S. Siegel, Mary I. Dobbins, Marian F. Earls, Laura McGuinn, John Pascoe, David L. Wood, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, and Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care. "The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress." Pediatrics 129, no. 1 (2012): e232-e246.

Suderman, M., McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., Huang, T. C., Hallett, M. T., Meaney, M. J., ... & Szyf, M. (2012). Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Supplement 2), 17266-17272.


About the Authors

Darcia Narvaez, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame and Director of the Collaborative for Ethical Education. Her current research examines the effects of parenting on child and adult outcomes. Narvaez has developed several integrative theories: Adaptive Ethical Expertise, Integrative Ethical Education, Triune Ethics Theory. She spoke at the Whitehouse's conference on Character and Community, and is author/editor of three award winning books: Postconventional Moral Thinking; Moral Development, Self and Identity; and the Handbook of Moral and Character Education. Her text, Human Nature, Early Experience, and the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness was a fantastic addition to a growing body of literature on a healthy, happy, babyhood. Visit Dr. Narvaez' website for additional books, papers, classes, websites and contact information.

Mary Tarsha is a graduate student in Developmental ​Psychology and Peace Studies at the Kroc Institute for International Peace at the University of Notre Dame

The Myth of Foremilk / Hindmilk Imbalance

By Danelle Day © 2018


"If we had the power to eliminate just one misunderstood notion about breastfeeding, it would be the concept of foremilk and hindmilk!" write Cindy and Jana, Registered Nurses and International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) who have assisted over 20,000 breastfeeding mothers.

Research clearly demonstrates that nursing mammals (human babies, too) receive milk near the end of most natural nursing sessions that is higher in fat content than milk at the beginning of that feeding. One biological reason for this is that early milk is the thirst quencher - baby can cue to nurse for just a few minutes to satisfy thirst, or comfort needs. Early milk is also power-packed in immunobodies and glyconutrients (the healthy sugars that kill cancer cells and feed the developing immune system) - super charging baby's immunity even when nursing briefly on-the-go. As breastfeeding continues, milk gradually becomes more and more dense in (healthy) fat content with each swallow baby takes. This beneficial fat feeds the cells of the rapidly developing brain and body. When baby is able to choose his/her time to breastfeed, because of this perfect set-up, s/he can get a quick snack for thirst and comfort and immunity, or s/he can get a full hearty meal that fills the tummy and feeds the brain.

This being said, there is no magic set amount of time from one mother to the next, one baby to the next, one nursing session to the next, or even one breast to the other, at which milk suddenly changes from 'foremilk' to 'hindmilk.' It is all just milk! Very gradually fat content increases. With each swallow baby takes, milk content shifts to meet baby's needs. When s/he is in control (and able to nurse effectively) baby is able to determine just the right amount of time to breastfeed to get just what s/he needs. This is why it is so vital to watch your baby, not the clock.

For one mother this may mean baby nurses on one breast for 30 minutes. For another mother baby may nurse each side for 20 minutes, or 15, or 10. Baby may nurse for 5 minutes, and come back 10 minutes later to nurse again. And again. Baby may nurse for longer periods of time at night than in the morning. One baby may nurse differently than his/her sibling did. Baby may nurse differently today than s/he did yesterday, and change week to week, due to his/her needs and also mom's hormone fluctuations. Milk content changes from one swallow to the next, from one baby to the next in the same mother, from one day to the next, and certainly from one mother to the next. In the midst of this beautiful dance of lactation and normal baby feeding, there is no 'foremilk / hindmilk imbalance' that occurs within any one individual mother's breasts.

When well meaning friends or ill-informed medical professionals tell nursing moms to "make sure your baby nurses long enough to get hindmilk" or "if your baby's poop is green, you have a foremilk/hindmilk imbalance" they are not dispersing information based in science, and this leads to mothers being troubled and thinking something is wrong. Many U.S. hospital postnatal rooms reinforce this myth by having mom record "how long baby breastfeeds on each side" on a chart that is reviewed by nursing staff. Breastfeeding moms wonder, "How long is 'long enough' for baby to get hindmilk?" "Should I only feed from one breast to try and help my baby gain?" Women want to do what they are being told by hospital staff, and begin to watch the clock instead of their baby -- the precise thing we should not be doing.

"A little knowledge can be a dangerous thing." writes Nancy Mohrbacher, author of the fantastic books, Breastfeeding Made Simple, and Working and Breastfeeding Made Simple, among others. "This has never been so true as in the ongoing debate about foremilk and hindmilk and their impact on breastfeeding. The misunderstandings around these concepts have caused anxiety, upset, and even led to breastfeeding problems and premature weaning."

Where did the foremilk / hindmilk imbalance myth arise from?

The foremilk / hindmilk imbalance idea was coined in a 1988 journal article * that reported the qualitative observations of a few mothers who breastfed by the clock, switching baby from one breast to the other after 10 minutes, even if baby was not finished nursing on that side. This is not something that is ever good to do as it does not allow baby to gradually control the amount of milk s/he takes in. The results from this one report have never been duplicated, and newer research calls its methods and conclusions into question. Many well versed in lactation science doubt there is even such a thing as a foremilk / hindmilk imbalance.


Myth-busting Lactation Facts: 

There are not two distinct kinds of milk. That's right - 'foremilk' and 'hindmilk' (as commonly as the terms are used) do not actually exist. There is no magic moment when foremilk becomes hindmilk. As noted above, the increase in fat content is gradual, with the milk becoming fattier and fattier over time as the breast drains more fully.

It is the total milk consumed daily by baby—not 'hindmilk' alone—that determines baby’s weight gain. Whether babies breastfeed often for shorter periods, or go for hours between feedings and nurse for longer times, the total daily fat consumption does not vary significantly.

Early milk is not always low-fat. The reason for this is that at the fat content of 'foremilk' varies greatly depending on the daily breastfeeding pattern. If baby breastfeeds again soon after the last nursing, the early-consumed milk at that feeding may be higher in fat than the late-consumed milk at other feeding. The longer a baby goes between feedings, the more varied milk will be from beginning to end when baby breastfeeds next. If baby is nursing more often than every 2-3 hours (frequent breastfeeding is normal and healthy for many babies at many points of development) than baby will be consuming fattier milk from the start.

If your baby is nursing more often, s/he is consuming more 'foremilk' that is higher in fat than babies who breastfeed less often. In the end, whether baby nurses for loooong stretches and goes 2-3 hours between, or breastfeeds more frequently, for less time, it all evens out at the end of the day, and watching baby and his/her cues is crucial (Kent 2007). Breastfeed on cue, around the clock, and safely sleep by your baby so that cue nursing and dream-feeding at night is easy too. See also: Your Baby's Signs of Hunger

Mohrbacher re-emphasizes: "What’s most important to a baby’s weight gain and growth is the total volume of milk consumed every 24 hours. On average, babies consume about 750 mL of milk per day (Kent et al., 2006). As far as growth is concerned, it doesn’t matter if a baby takes 30 mL every hour or 95 mL every three hours, as long as he receives enough milk overall (Mohrbacher, 2010). In fact, researchers have found that whether babies practice the frequent feedings of traditional cultures or the longer intervals common in the West, they take about the same amount of milk each day (Hartmann, 2007) and get about the same amount of milk fat. Let’s simplify breastfeeding for the mothers we help and once and for all cross foremilk and hindmilk off our 'worry lists.'"

Pumped breastmilk does not look like other forms of processed milk (cow, goat, etc.) that we are accustomed to seeing in the store. Cow milk is made perfectly for baby cows, not humans, as it is different in composition for the mammal it is designed to feed, and it also does not appear this way directly from a mother cow to her calf. Instead, natural human milk has a thin and watery appearance, with a creamy fat layer that may or may not develop when milk sits in the fridge. This is normal, and it will vary from one pumping to the next, and from one breast to the other.

If you are breastfeeding on cue, around the clock, babywearing in the day and safely cosleeping at night to keep baby close, and still find yourself concerned about baby's consumption, take note of how your baby nurses rather than watching any clock. Is your baby swallowing? Is s/he relaxed and content after nursing? Do her little hands open up into a tiny 5-point starfish when she is full? Is he gaining weight over the course of weeks passing? Baby's behavior matters far more than timing, and when we watch our babies and tune into their cues, we allow them to lead the way. In situations where baby is not gaining weight, an IBCLC can do a weighted nursing session (before/after breastfeeding), check for latch and suckle techniques by baby, and also note if a tongue or lip tie is preventing effective milk consumption. Reach out to an experienced lactation consultant in your area, and join local La Leche League and mom's milk cafe groups near you.


What about Green Poop?

Baby’s first bowel movements are the black and tarry meconium that was in the gut at birth. As breastfeeding commences, around Day 3 of life on the outside, baby’s poop changes to 'transitional stools,' which have a dark greenish color. Around Day 5, baby's poop color shifts again to yellow. Its consistency while exclusively breastfed (that is, while nothing but human milk is consumed) may look like mustard or split pea soup - liquid with seedy bits in it. Even when baby’s poop is all liquid with no seeds, and any variation of yellow-orange-green-brown, this is also normal.

In general lots of milk consumption in the early months, means lots of poops, no matter their color or how liquid or seedy they are. After 2 months of age, it is normal for many babies to poop only once every 3-4 days. There is very little waste in human milk, and this does not mean that baby is not receiving enough. Before 6-8 weeks of age, if baby is not pooping daily, a weight check is justified to ensure baby is receiving adequate amounts of milk.

Baby's poop color is not reason to worry if baby seems well and is gaining weight. In her book, Baby Poop: What Your Pediatrician May Not Tell You, Dr. Linda Palmer reminds readers that green is the most common color of baby stools seen, and should not cause alarm. "Beyond the newborn stage, the first matter of order when seeing green is to determine whether baby has eaten some especially green food, including kiwi, spirulina, or green veggies. It's said that grape-flavored Pedialyte [and other grape or chocolate or dark flavored/dyed items] can turn baby poop a bright green. If a child is being given iron supplements, these can turn his stools a dark evergreen." Palmer continues, "[I]f it's not a food pigment, then...green is the digestive juice bile; the same stuff that, when properly digested, imparts the normal yellow to brown colorations of poop. When bile comes out green, it is because the stool has been rushed through baby's digestive system, and not hung around long enough to break down. The question to ask is why."

Causes of Green Poop: 

1) Food dye, natural coloring, or flavoring in mom or baby's diet. This is the most common reason for green colorations of baby poop. In the majority of cases, something minor has shifted poop coloration for a few days.

2) A virus. When baby is ill, the body produces excess mucus that is swallowed by baby. This rushes poop through the digestive tract faster, and poop color may change for several weeks. Keep breastfeeding! It’s the best way to support baby's immune system in fighting the virus.

3) Antibiotics, which also cause stool to rush through baby's system.

4) Teething. When baby is teething large amounts of saliva are swallowed, entering and irritating the digestive tract, causing matter to rush through more quickly. Give baby plenty of teething options to make the process as painless as possible. See: Teething Solutions.

5) Abundant milk supply. If mom produces so much milk that baby receives mostly high-sugar/low-fat milk, it may overwhelm baby’s gut in the early weeks and cause watery or green stools. One way to change this is to simply pump for a few minutes before nursing, and use the pumped milk for your later freezer stash when milk supply regulates, and/or baby grows to be more effective at nursing, with a larger mouth and bigger stomach. We've also used this high-immunity pumped milk to turn into breastmilk popsicles for teething or toddler days. Doing this gets baby fattier milk from the start, and gradually decreases milk production when baby does not fully empty the breasts. Another form of reducing milk supply is block nursing (or block feeding).

6) Inability to breastfeed effectively. A health or anatomy issue (tongue tie, lip tie) may prevent baby from getting the milk s/he needs. See an IBCLC in person to determine if this is the case.

7) Sensitivity to a food or drug in mom's diet. There are certain foods (cow's milk, nuts, soy) that contain proteins that cannot be digested by newborn human babies, but pass easily through mom's milk when they are in her daily diet. This impacts all babies in their early life, but some much more than others. If you notice that your baby is agitated, "colicky," has gas or tummy pain, reflux, sometimes combined with frothy/green stools, it is very likely that your baby is responding more intensely to these items in your diet. Eliminating nuts and soy in the early months, and switching to vanilla rice milk (for example) instead of cow's milk, will help baby's digestion, discomfort, and pain in virtually all cases. For an easy-to-understand synthesis of the research on this, see Palmer's excellent book, Baby Matters: What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Caring For Your Baby.

In conclusion, the foremilk/hindmilk myth is a misconception that is popular, but not based in lactation science. Breastfeed your baby on cue, around the clock, in a pattern that is baby-led (not clock-led). Find comfortable ways to babywear and sleep by your baby to make life easier for you, and to provide baby with round-the-clock access to the milk s/he needs. Provided s/he is gaining weight, wetting, and occasionally pooping (yellow, green, orange - lots of variations of normal), and is a happy and alert baby, all is well.


References:

Aksit, Sadik, Nese Ozkayin, and Suat Caglayan. "Effect of Sucking Characteristics on Breast Milk Creamatocrit.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 16.4 (2002): 355-60.

Hartmann, P.E. (2007). "Mammary gland: Past, present, and future." in eds. Hale, T.W. & Hartmann, P.E. Hale and Hartmann's Textbook of Human Lactation. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing, pp. 3-16.

Kent, J. C. (2007). "How breastfeeding works." Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 52(6), 564-570.

Kent, J. C., Mitoulas, L. R., Cregan, M. D., Ramsay, D. T., Doherty, D. A., & Hartmann, P. E. (2006). "Volume and frequency of breastfeedings and fat content of breast milk throughout the day." Pediatrics, 117(3), e387-395.

Mohrbacher, N. Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple: A Guide for Helping Mothers. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing, 2010.

Mohrbacher, N. Breastfeeding Made Simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers.
New Harbinger Publications, 2nd Edition, 2010.

Palmer, L. Baby Poop: What Your Pediatrician May Not Tell You. Sunny Lane Press, 2015.

Palmer, L. Baby Matters: What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Caring for Your Baby. Baby Reference, 3rd Edition, 2015.

* Woolridge MW and Fisher C. "Colic, 'overfeeding,' and symptoms of lactose malabsorption in the breast-fed baby: a possible artifact of feed management?" Lancet. 1988 Aug 13;2(8607):382-4.

Breastfeeding mothers are welcome to join the Breastfeeding Group on Facebook: FB.com/groups/Breastfed


About the Author

Danelle Day focused on human labor and lactation sciences as part of her graduate work in human development. After ten years teaching at the university level, Day left full time academia to raise babies of her own, and joined Peaceful Parenting in 2006 as a clinical advisory board member where she has served thousands of breastfeeding families since that time.

Castor Oil Induction

By Anu Morgan and Danelle Day © 2018



Those last few weeks of pregnancy can be tough at times, especially with round ligament pain, difficulty breathing, pressure from family, friends and pushy practitioners, and so much more. At this time many women are tempted to get labor started on their own, as fast as we can, and look to any method that may allow us to meet our little ones sooner. Looking into 'natural induction methods,' castor oil is among one of the most commonly mentioned. However, this does not mean that it is safe, or without risk for both mom and baby.


Castor oil is a vegetable oil that comes from the castor plant and is best known as a laxative. As it enters the body, castor oil increases small intestinal secretions that stimulate the bowels, often causing intense diarrhea. Diarrhea results from the increase in prostaglandins from castor oil intake, that forces the small intestines to contract unnaturally. Extreme diarrhea is notorious for leading to dehydration, and in the case of a pregnant mother, dehydration can cause labor to occur when baby is not yet ready for the outside world -- leading to a host of other complications with baby's lungs, immune system, and increasing NICU stay needs.

Not only does excess diarrhea and intestinal contractions lead to dehydration for expecting mothers, but castor oil itself also decreases the body’s glucose absorption. This means that when a pregnant mother needs nourishment more than ever, her body is not able to absorb all the nutrients that she takes in, further complicating dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

The second side effect of castor oil that many are not informed of is that just as it causes contractions of the small intestines to be irregular and unnatural, castor oil similarly impacts the uterus -- causing contractions of the uterus to be more intense, irregular, and unnatural for both mom and her baby. Coupled with dehydration, this leaves a birthing mother drained of energy when she needs it most - to birth her baby, and does not give her a normally functioning uterus in top capacity spurred only by natural birth hormones.

A third risk factor of castor oil is that just as it causes intestinal contractions for mom, so it can with baby. This means that there is a much greater chance baby will pass meconium while inside the uterus, which can lead to fetal distress, or even death. A study published in the Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare in 2014 stated that 18% of the women who took castor oil had meconium stained waters, verses only 6% of women who did not ingest castor oil. APGAR scores of all newborn babies induced through castor oil were also impacted negatively and significantly.


While it can be hard to wait for our little one to get here, take heart in knowing that baby has a lot to gain from growing inside those last few weeks and days. Normal human gestation periods range from 38 to 43 weeks, with 42 being the most common for first time mothers, and some women birthing naturally into their 43rd and 44th weeks. At 40+ weeks a mother is not overdue. Lung development is critical during these final weeks. Just as we see in animal husbandry and veterinary science, each extra day that a mammal grows on the inside results in a stronger, smarter, more healthy baby, and so it is true for humans. In fact, research suggests that it is a lung protein that is released by baby that tells mom's body baby is ready for the outside world, and labor begins. In the absence of other health complications (including dehydration, malnourishment, drug use, extreme stress, abuse, etc.) mothers birth their babies when they are truly ready to arrive earthside, and this is a good thing!

Veteran midwife and contributing editor of Midwifery Today, Gloria LeMay, writes:
On the subject of all the women in a hurry to get their babies born: I was 3 weeks ‘overdue’ with my oldest daughter. What really helped me was when I had lunch with a friend at about 8 months pregnancy. Her son had been born 6 months before. When she saw me walk into the restaurant, all hugely pregnant, she said, "Oh, Gloria, when I see you I miss my pregnancy so much." I knew that one day I’d be saying that too, so I made up my mind to enjoy it as long as possible, and I’m so glad I did! Six months from now you’ll be wondering what the rush was.

One final note begs attention here and that is the myth of the "aging placenta." This misconception is pushed upon mothers who reach 41+ weeks gestation, and it is completely bogus: your placenta will not all of a sudden stop working.  This myth is not based in science, and is used to coerce and push artificial labor induction and c-sections upon women in a broken birth world that does not trust birth, or the woman and baby whose bodies know just what to do when left alone. In a fantastic review of research on the "Aging of the Placenta" published in the British Medical Journal, authors conclude:
A review of the available evidence indicates that the placenta does not undergo a true aging change during pregnancy. There is, in fact, no logical reason for believing that the placenta, which is a fetal organ, should age while the other fetal organs do not: the situation in which an individual organ ages within an organism that is not aged is one which does not occur in any biological system. The persisting belief in placental aging has been based on a confusion between morphological maturation and differentiation and aging, a failure to appreciate the functional resources of the organ, and an uncritical acceptance of the overly facile concept of “placental insufficiency” as a cause of increased perinatal mortality.
Relish in your little one's movements on the inside. Savor these last weeks talking, singing, walking, dancing with your baby snuggled safe within. Take photos. Take videos. Take long, soothing baths. And know that your baby will be born in his or her own perfect time. ♥


Related Reading

Fetal Lungs Protein Release Triggers Labor to Begin: DrMomma.org/2008/01/fetal-lungs-protein-release-triggers.html

Castor Oil Safety and Effectiveness on Labor Induction and Neonatal Outcome:  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sahar_Abd_El-Gawad/publication/261437700_Castor_Oil_Safety_and_Effectiveness_on_Labour_Induction_and_Neonatal_Outcome/links/02e7e5344483cbda3f000000.pdf

Castor Oil Inductions - Gloria LeMay: http://wisewomanwayofbirth.com/castor-oil-inductions

The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: https://amzn.to/2sRC1s5

Born in the USA: How a Broken Maternity System Must Be Fixed to Put Women and Children First (Dr. Marsden Wagner): https://amzn.to/2LLyOS6

Birth Reborn: What Childbirth Should Be (Dr. Michel Odent): https://amzn.to/2LGgoSC

Birth and Breastfeeding: Rediscovering the Needs of Women During Pregnancy and Childbirth (Dr. Michel Odent): https://amzn.to/2JL0by9

Length of human pregnancy and contributors to its natural variation: https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/28/10/2848/620772

Length of human pregnancies can vary naturally by as much as five weeks: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130806203327.htm

Pregnant Pause: My Baby's Not 'Overdue': DrMomma.org/2014/02/pregnant-pause-my-babys-not-overdue.html

Fox H Aging of the placenta Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 1997;77:F171-F175.

Why Pregnancy Due Dates are Inaccurate: DrMomma.org/2009/09/why-pregnancy-due-dates-are-inaccurate.html

The Lie of the Estimated Due Date (EDD): DrMomma.org/2009/06/lie-of-estimated-due-date-edd-why-your.html

No Induction is 'Normal': DrMomma.org/2010/06/no-induction-is-normal.html

Trusting Birth: 43 Weeks of Faith: DrMomma.org/2013/09/trusting-birth-43-weeks-of-faith.html

Pregnant Moms Due [this year] Group: FB.com/groups/DueDateGroup (more mainstream)

Birthing Group: FB.com/groups/Birthing (more holistic)




Kinderpack





We love Kindercarry's Kinderpack! Especially for bigger/taller/heavier babies, toddlers and children -- this is the most comfortable carrier we have tried, and it is a favorite among our local babywearing lending library. When Peaceful Parenting began (2005) there was no such thing as a comfortable soft structured carrier (SSC) for a heavy/large baby or toddler. With the Kinderpack we can comfortably babywear for many hours, day after day, and do so with special needs children as well. It is truly a blessing in babywearing, and one we'd love everyone to experience. You can learn more about Kinderpacks and their small-batch, USA handmade construction at the Kindercarry homepage.


Each Kinderpack below comes to you brand new, with tags attached, in its original packaging, and has never been tried on, unless otherwise noted. Photos are of the actual carrier you will receive and the listing will be removed from this page upon purchase. Many Kinderpacks below have Plus padded straps because they are perfect for every body type and can be adjusted for a comfortable babywearing fit for parents of all sizes, and shared between parents. New Kinderpacks below include FREE 2-day priority shipping in the United States and to APO/FPO addresses. International shipping is $18 to Canada and $34 to all other nations. Email DrMomma.org{at}gmail.com

With each Kinderpack you'll receive two Born 2B Worn advocacy bracelets in cool colors (blue/purple/teal) and warm colors (red/orange/hot pink). Kinderpacks arrive brand new, never tried on, in their zippered pouch, with all paperwork, unless otherwise noted.


Note: No one at Peaceful Parenting has been given any incentive of any kind to speak upon Kinderpacks. We love Kinderpacks, have shared locally for many years, and would like to help other families have access to one that fits their needs. Packs were purchased brand new, directly from Kindercarry, at full retail costs plus shipping. Any pack sold for less is one we lose funds on.

Any amount donated beyond retail/shipping/fees/taxes goes toward Peaceful Parenting education at maternity and baby expos where materials are given freely to new and expecting families; as well as toward the non-profit work that Peaceful Parenting takes on (birth, breastfeeding, baby care supplies and support for low-income families, mothers, and to orphanages overseas). If you have a Kinderpack you'd like to give toward this effort (to share freely with another family in need, or to send with an orphanage volunteer working with babies/toddlers), write to DrMomma.org{at}gmail.com

Shopping at the main Kindercarry site? Click here to get $10 off your purchase. The majority of Kinderpacks we have below are also $10 off retail, with free priority shipping.

Email is responded to within 24 hours, and Kinderpacks are shipped within 1 business day that USPS is open. If you do not receive a response, please check the email address you are sending to, or your junk/spam filter.

Three different options to purchase: 

1) Click the Purchase button under the Kinderpack you wish to buy. [PayPal takes a percentage with this option and it is processed as a Goods Business Transaction]

2) Send via check or money order to:
Peaceful Parenting
P.O. Box 1302
Virginia Beach, VA 23451
*personal checks will have to clear before Kinderpack is sent; email DrMomma.org{at}gmail.com before sending check so that your new KP is held for you

3) If you are local to Virginia Beach and would like to meet, please email. We have regular fitting dates with parents in the community, attend the majority of maternity and baby expos in the area, and would be happy to meet with you anytime.

KINDERPACKS BY SIZE:
Infant • Standard • Toddler • Preschool

INFANT
Kinderpacks are $10 below retail, except for specialty prints.
Each is brand new and ships within 1 business day via Priority Mail with tracking and insurance.
Each new Kinderpack comes to you with two "Born to be Worn" bracelets.


The Good Fight Duo - Infant Plus
Limited Edition, Rare one time release
Matching pink/white polkadot hoody-hood
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

The Good Fight Duo - Infant Standard
Limited Edition, Rare one time release
Matching pink/white polkadot hoody-hood
SALE $159, shipping included
PURCHASE

Classic Black - Infant Plus
full panel black, with matching polka-dot hoody hood
SALE $174, shipping included
PURCHASE

• SPECIALTY PRINTS •

Terrapin Riptide Duo - Infant Plus
Hard to access, 2 time release
Matching turtles hoody-hood with navy canvas
SALE $174, shipping included
PURCHASE

Starstruck Full Panel - Infant Plus
Black Canvas; Glow in the Dark Stars
Very Rare Semi-Custom, Matching hoody-hood
SALE $199, shipping included
PURCHASE

Starstruck with Black Koolnit - Infant Plus
Custom Black Canvas; Glow in the Dark Stars
Rare Semi-Custom, Black Koolnit hood
SALE $194, shipping included
PURCHASE
Starstruck Kinderpack's Glow in the Dark Stars at Night

STANDARD
Kinderpacks are $10 below retail, except for specialty prints.
Each is brand new and ships within 1 business day via Priority Mail with tracking and insurance.
Each new Kinderpack comes to you with two "Born to be Worn" bracelets.


Classic Black - Standard Plus with Koolnit
Black Canvas, with Black Koolnit hood
SALE $154, shipping included
PURCHASE

Classic Black - Standard Plus
full panel with matching polka-dot hoody hood
SALE $154, shipping included
PURCHASE

Fairytale - Standard Standard
Dark Grey Canvas, Matching full panel hoody-hood
SALE $149, shipping included
PURCHASE

• SPECIALTY PRINTS •


Aquarius Duo - Standard Plus
Popular sea creatures duo with aqua canvas
matching sea creatures hoody-hood
SALE $154, shipping included
PURCHASE

Posey Pinwheel Duo - Standard Plus
One of the most popular duos!
Matching pinwheel hoody-hood (example pictured below)
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

Starstruck Full Panel - Standard Plus
Black Canvas; Glow in the Dark Stars
Very Rare Semi-Custom, Matching Hoody-Hood
SALE $199, shipping included
PURCHASE

Starstruck with Black Koolnit - Standard Plus
Custom Black Canvas; Glow in the Dark Stars
Very Rare Semi-Custom with Black Canvas, Black Koolnit Hood
SALE $184, shipping included
PURCHASE


TODDLER
Kinderpacks are $10 below retail, except for specialty prints.
Each is brand new and ships within 1 business day via Priority Mail with tracking and insurance.
Each new Kinderpack comes to you with two "Born to be Worn" bracelets.

Hop To It - Toddler Plus with Koolnit
Very Hard to Find, Retired print
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE


Fairytale - Toddler Standard
Matching full panel hoody-hood, dark grey canvas
SALE $159, shipping included
PURCHASE

Classic Black Full Panel - Toddler Plus
matching polka-dot hoody hood (pictured below)
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

Twilight - Toddler Plus with Koolnit
with matching black Koolnit hood
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

• SPECIALTY PRINTS • 

Posey Pinwheel Duo - Toddler Standard
One of the most popular duos!
Matching pinwheel hoody-hood (example pictured below)
SALE $169, shipping included
PURCHASE

Posey Pinwheel Duo - Toddler Plus
One of the most popular duos!
Matching pinwheel hoody-hood (example pictured above)
SALE $174, shipping included
PURCHASE

Constellations Full Panel - Toddler Plus
Navy Canvas, Matching Hoody-hood
Hard to access print, special glow in the dark fabric that retails higher
Matching hoody-hood (see example below)
SALE $179, shipping included
PURCHASE
Kinderpack Constellations Full Panel Hoody-Hood example

Constellations Full Panel - Toddler Plus
Black Canvas, Matching Hoody-hood
Hard to access print, special glow in the dark fabric that retails higher
Matching hoody-hood (see example above)
SALE $179, shipping included
Starstruck with Black Koolnit - Toddler Standard
Custom Black Canvas; Glow in the Dark Stars
Very Rare Semi-Custom with black canvas & black Koolnit
SALE $179, shipping included
PURCHASE


PRESCHOOL
Kinderpacks are $10 below retail, except for specialty prints.
Each is brand new and ships within 1 business day via Priority Mail with tracking and insurance.
Each new Kinderpack comes to you with two "Born to be Worn" bracelets.

Zombie Apocalypse 2 - Preschool Plus
with matching full panel hoody-hood
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

Fairytale - Preschool Standard
with matching full panel hoody-hood
SALE $159, shipping included
PURCHASE

The Good Fight Duo - Preschool Standard
Matching polkadot white/pink hoody-hood
Limited Edition - One Time Release
SALE $159, shipping included
PURCHASE

 Regatta with Navy Koolnit - Preschool Plus
Matching Navy Koolnit Hood
SALE $164, shipping included
PURCHASE

• SPECIALTY PRINTS •


Terrapin / Riptide Duo - Preschool Standard
Matching turtles hoody-hood; very hard-to-find, 2-time release
SALE $179, includes shipping

 Posey Pinwheel Duo - Preschool Standard
One of the most popular duos!
Matching pinwheel hoody-hood (example pictured below)
SALE $169, shipping included
PURCHASE

Webs We Weave - Preschool Standard with Koolnit
Matching black Koolnit Hood
Rare, one-time-release + custom; glow-in-the-dark special fabric.
SALE $169, includes 2-day shipping
Pictured: Webs' glow in the dark pattern at night

Starstruck with Black Koolnit - Preschool Standard
Custom Black Canvas / Glow in the Dark Stars / Black KN Hood
Very Rare Semi-Custom with black canvas and koolnit
SALE $179, shipping included
PURCHASE
Starstruck Kinderpack's Glow in the Dark Stars at Night

*******

Straps: Standard or Plus: 4 extra inches of padding along strap
Parents of all sizes use and love plus straps:

Perfect Fit Adjusters
(making plus straps perfect for every babywearer)


All babywearing families are welcome to join:
Kinderpack B/S/T Chat Group

Where our Kinderpacks have gone... Please feel free to drop us a note or share a photo anytime (DrMomma.org {at} gmail.com). We love connecting with families and seeing your little ones grow, wrapped up in love. ♥ Thank you for letting us be a part of your babywearing adventure!

Posey Pinwheel Duo (Infant Plus) - Iowa family

Terrapin (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Starstruck (Toddler Standard) - California family

Terrapin Tide (Toddler Standard) - New Jersey family

Constellations (Infant Plus) - Washington family

Constellations (Preschool Standard) - Tennessee family

Starstruck (Preschool Standard) - California family

DIY Butterfly (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Regatta (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Michigan family

Terrapin (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Blue Poppies (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - North Carolina family

Constellations (Preschool Standard, Black Canvas) - Maryland family

Constellations (Preschool Standard, Black Canvas) - Georgia family

Constellations (Preschool Plus, Navy Canvas) - Texas family

Skulls and Roses (Preschool Plus) - Oregon family

Starstruck (Preschool Standard) - Florida family

Hollow (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Oklahoma family

Classic Black (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - Illinois family

Regatta (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Kansas family

POUNCE! (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - New York family

Terrapin (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Iowa family

Terrapin (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - South Carolina family

In the Round (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - Ohio family
*this new Kinderpack was sold to fund a larger size going to an in-need orphanage in Mongolia

Indigo Bloom (Toddler Plus) - California family

Summit (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - New York family

Safari (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Geared Up (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Oklahoma family

Constellations (Infant Plus) - Military family overseas

Classic Black (Infant Plus) - gifted to Wisconsin family

Fantasy Forest (Preschool Plus) - The Netherlands family

Fly By Night Duo (Preschool Standard) - Massachusetts family

Terrapin (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Summit (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Maryland family

Constellations (Standard Plus) - Singapore family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Preschool Plus) - Iowa family

Dragons (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Constellations (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Delaware family

Terrapin Tide (Preschool Plus) - Virginia family

Suckerpunch (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Illinois family

Hollow (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Indiana family

Hollow (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Riptide (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Chesapeake (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - South Carolina family

Summit (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Minnesota family

Hollow (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Minnesota family

Riptide (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Pennsylvania family

Serengeti (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Arizona family

Synergy (Toddler Standard, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Heartland (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

Twilight (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Military family

Summit (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Summit (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Michigan family

Suckerpunch (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Batik Roses (Preschool Standard) - Georgia family

Alice [in Wonderland] (Preschool Plus) - U.K. family

Shark Attack (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Infant Plus) - Missouri family

Constellations (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Massachusetts family

Aqua Bubbles (Preschool Standard) - California family

Fantasy Forest (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Pennsylvania family

Heartland (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - New Jersey family

Suckerpunch (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - New Jersey family

Fantasy Forest (Infant Plus) - Pennsylvania family

Terrapin (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Fairytale (Infant Plus) - New Jersey family

Classic Black (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - North Carolina family

Batik Roses (Standard Plus) - South Carolina family

Constellations (Preschool Standard) - Illinois family

Terrapin (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Batik Roses (Toddler Plus) - New Zealand family

Indigo Bloom (Infant Plus) - Texas family

Chesapeake (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Heartland (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Minnesota family

Narwhal (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Oregon family

Artemis (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

POUNCE! (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - New Jersey family

Shark Plank Duo (Infant Plus) - Texas family

Monster Mash 2014 (Toddler Standard, Koolnit) - Washington family

Twilight (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Colorado family

Terrapin (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Georgia family

POUNCE! (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Connecticut family

Classic Black (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Brilliant Beards (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Canadian family

Clementine (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - South Carolina family

Brilliant Beards (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Classic Black (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - Tennessee family

Fairytale (Preschool Standard) - Arizona family

Riptide (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Missouri

POUNCE! (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Dragons (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - California family

Aquarius Duo (Preschool Standard) - Georgia family

Dino-Mite (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Pennsylvania family

Suckerpunch (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Classic Black (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - New York family

Shark Plank Duo (Infant Plus) - Texas family

Party Hearty (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Illinois family

Riptide (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Alaska family

Suckerpunch (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Florida family

Dragons (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Shark Plank Duo (Toddler Plus) - Kansas family

Midnight Floral (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Lotis (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - New Jersey family

Rhino Romp (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Minnesota family

Skulls & Roses (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

Fairytale (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Constellations (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Utah family

Rhino Romp (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - New York family

Inked! (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - South Dakota family

Terrapin (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Riptide (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Fantasy Forest (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - California family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Preschool Standard) - Virginia family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Preschool Plus) - Florida family

Riptide (Toddler Standard, Koolnit) - Maryland family

Superkids (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Georgia family

Terrapin (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Maryland family

Shark Plank Duo (Preschool Standard) - Delaware family

Trophy Too (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Constellations (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - California family

Chesapeake (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Regatta (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Alaska family

Shark Attack (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Heartland (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - North Carolina family

Bee Sweeter Duo (Infant Plus) - California family

Summit (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Wisconsin family

Constellations (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Constellations (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Dragons (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Louisiana family

Terrapin (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Hollow [Limited Edition] (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Michigan family

Voyage (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Singapore family

Aqua Bubbles (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Wisconsin family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Infant Standard) - Wisconsin family

Bearly Sleeping (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

Aqua Bubbles (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - New York family

Fly By Night Duo (Infant Plus) - California family

Chesapeake (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Florida family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Toddler Standard) - California family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Toddler Plus) - Florida family

Terrapin (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Voyage (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

Voyage (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Heartland (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Dino-Mite (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Aqua Bubbles (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Wisconsin family

Fly By Night Duo (Standard Plus) - Pennsylvania family

Aqua Bubbles (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - Florida family

Batik Roses (Infant Plus) - Ohio family

Alice [in Wonderland] (Infant Plus) - California family

Voyage (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Nevada family

Constellations (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Riptide (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Sky High (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - Alaska family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Standard Plus) - Washington family

In the Round (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

In the Round (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Constellations (Preschool Standard) - Washington family

Clementine (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Pennsylvania family

Clementine (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Georgia family

Dragons (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Missouri family

Dino-Mite (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Pennsylvania family

Indigo Bloom (Infant Standard) - Utah family

Alice [in Wonderland] (Toddler Standard) - Washington family

Riptide (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

Beards (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Kansas family

Voyage (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Maryland family

Aquarius Duo (Infant Plus) - Pennsylvania family

Constellations (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Wisconsin family

Indigo Bloom (Infant Plus) - UK family

Classic Black (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - California family

DIY Butterfly (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Germany family

Batik Roses (Infant Plus) - APO Military family

Classic Black (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - Massachusetts family

Webs We Weave [Limited Edition] (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - Singapore family

Webs We Weave [Limited Edition] (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Webs We Weave [Limited Edition] (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Hawaii family

Webs We Weave [Limited Edition] (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Illinois family

Elephant Romp (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Connecticut family

Skulls and Roses (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

In Focus (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Little Wing (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Georgia family

Dino-Mite (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - California family

Adorned (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Michigan family

Terrapin (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Terrapin (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Hong Kong family

Chesapeake (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Georgia family

Mermaids (Infant Plus) - Spain family

Summit (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Alaska family

Skulls and Roses (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Oregon family

Fairytale (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Florida family

Heartland (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - South Carolina family

Riptide (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

Constellations (Infant Plus) - Missouri family

Sky High (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Texas family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Preschool Standard) - North Carolina family

Shark Attack (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Tennessee family

Constellations (Preschool Standard) - Washington family

Derby (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Germany family

Regatta (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - New Mexico family

SuperKids (Infant Standard, Koolnit) - California family

Summit (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Australia family

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Preschool Standard) - Alberta, Canada family

Riptide (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - California family

Shady Savannah (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - Ohio family

Dino-Mite (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Michigan family

In Focus (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Washington family

Bearly Sleeping (Standard Standard, Koolnit) - Singapore family

Zombie Apocalypse 2 (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - Virginia family

Shady Savannah (Toddler Plus, Koolnit) - Arkansas family

Riptide (Preschool Standard, Koolnit) - Illinois family

Twilight (Infant Plus, Koolnit) - Minnesota family

Twilight (Standard Plus, Koolnit) - gifted to California/Texas military family 

[Harry Potter] Wiz Kid (Infant Plus) - gifted to Wisconsin family 

Posey Pinwheel Duo (Infant Plus) - gifted to Wisconsin family 

Posey Pinwheel Duo (Preschool Plus) - gifted to Virginia family 

Bee Sweeter Duo (Preschool Plus) - gifted to Virginia family 

Riptide (Toddler Plus) - gifted to Virginia family 

Blue Poppies (Preschool Plus, Koolnit) - gifted to Virginia family 

Shark Plank Duo (Toddler Plus) - gifted to Virginia family 

Heartland (Preschool Standard) - gifted to Virginia family 

Constellations (Preschool Plus) - gifted to Virginia family 

Used KPs from our Birth & Babies Lending library and donations to orphanage volunteers in Uganda, Mongolia, Indonesia, Philippines, Haiti. ♥


*****

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