Peacefully Parented Babies Grow Up to Be Smarter, Kinder Kids

By Maia Szalavitz
Read more from Szalavitz at Time Healthline

Over the last several decades, more and more research has suggested that experiences in early life — even prenatal life — can have a disproportionate influence on the development of personality and physical and mental health. Now another group of studies, led by Notre Dame psychology professor Darcia Narvaez, confirms earlier work suggesting that children who get more positive touch and affection during infancy turn out to be kinder, more intelligent and to care more about others.

Narvaez, who will present her findings at a conference in early October, conducted three separate studies. The first compared parenting practices in the U.S. and China. Another followed a large sample of children of teen mothers who were involved in a child abuse–prevention project, and compared outcomes of various types of early parenting practices. The third examined how parents of 3-year-olds behaved toward their children.

All three studies suggested the same thing: children who are shown more affection early in life reap big benefits. Researchers found that kids who were held more by their parents, whose cries received quick responses in infancy and who were disciplined without corporal punishment were more empathic — that is, they were better able to understand the minds of others — later in life.

Although there were some differences between American and Chinese practices, "we found mostly parallels," Narvaez notes.

Given that highly affectionate parenting practices are similar to the practices anthropologists believe parents used during the thousands of years that humans lived in hunter-gatherer societies, it's likely that they are closely matched with what a developing baby's brain naturally expects.

Consider the way babies instinctively cry when put to sleep alone. In the early human environment, a child would never have slept more than an arm's reach from his parents or other caregivers. Lone sleeping may elicit a stress response in the baby because it's not the "safe" environment that the brain is programmed to expect. The fact that most babies can adjust to it anyway shows how flexible and "plastic" brain development is — but Narvaez' research suggests that meeting the brain's early expectations may have added benefits.

"What's been studied most is responsivity," she says, referring to the way parents respond to their babies and act accordingly, for example, noticing when they are about to cry and reacting appropriately to subtle positive and negative signals about what they want. "[Responsivity] is clearly linked with moral development. It helps foster an agreeable personality, early conscience development and greater prosocial behavior."

Even rat research confirms the importance of early nurture. Rat pups born to mothers that lick and nuzzle them — even rats that are put in the "foster" care of such mothers — are healthier, grow faster, and are better able to run mazes and interact socially than pups that are neglected. Rats raised by less affectionate moms have deficits in all these areas — but they do perform better in extremely stressful situations.

I summarize much of the latest research in empathy in the book Born for Love: Why Empathy Is Essential — and Endangered, co-authored with leading child psychiatrist Dr. Bruce Perry:
[W]hile we are born for love, we need to receive it in certain, specific ways in early life to benefit most from its mercy. We need to practice love as we grow through different social experiences to best be able to give it back in abundance. The brain becomes what it does most frequently. It is shaped every day by what we do — and what we don't do.

If we don't practice empathy, we can't become more empathetic. If we don't interact with people, we can't improve our connections to them. If we don't ease each other's stress through caring contact, we will all be increasingly distressed.
Of course, early life is certainly not the only influence on empathy: some of the most caring, altruistic people have suffered horribly neglectful and abusive childhoods. Children are, thankfully, quite resilient. But if you want to give your child an edge in these areas, lots of cuddles and responsive parenting certainly can't hurt.

Related Reading: 

Born for Love: Why Empathy is Essential - and Endangered

Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby's Brain

Our Babies, Ourselves: How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Parent

The Continuum Concept: In Search of Happiness Lost

The Science of Parenting

Maia Szalavitz is a neuroscience journalist obsessed with addiction, love, evidence-based living, empathy, fertility and pretty much everything related to brain and behavior. Szalavitz is the co-author of Born for Love: Why Empathy is Essential — and Endangered (Morrow, 2010) and The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog (Basic, 2006), both with Dr. Bruce D. Perry. She is the author of Help at Any Cost: How the Troubled-Teen Industry Cons Parents and Hurts Kids (Riverhead, 2006), the first book-length exposé of the “tough love” business. Szalavitz’s work has been published in TIME Magazine, the New York Times, Elle, Scientific American Mind, the Washington Post, New Scientist and Psychology Today, among many others. She is the winner of the American Psychological Associations Division 50 Award for Contributions to the Addictions.


7 Breastfeeding Facts You Should Know

By Danelle Day © 2010

Breastfeeding, while natural and normal to all mammals, can occasionally be a bit of a mystery to those who haven't looked into human lactation and the science behind it, or spend a lifetime growing up among nursing mothers and their babies. Counselors from the Australian Breastfeeding Association recently put together their top seven facts mothers should know to make breastfeeding easier. They stress the following facts for nursing moms:

1) For babies, breastfeeding is an instinct. Provided birth (during and after) is not interrupted or messed with (induction, drugs, surgery, pain) babies are born with the instinct to breastfeed, and they nurse easily when given the opportunity to follow their primal instincts.

2) For mothers, breastfeeding is a learned skill. It is normal to need plenty of help and for it to take a few weeks to feel confident breastfeeding. This is especially true if a mother has not grown up in a culture that values and empowers nursing mothers - one where she grew up witnessing a wide variety of nursing babies and their mothers. This nipple latch technique has helped many moms who need some extra skills to help baby latch properly (so that nursing is comfortable). Visiting with a skilled lactation consultant in person is also extremely valuable in perfecting latch early on in one's breastfeeding career.

3) Skin-to-skin contact helps babies learn to breastfeed more easily and supports the nursing relationship (and milk supply) hormonally. When a baby of any age is held skin-to-skin against his mother's chest he is more able to follow his instincts and attach well to the breast. This skin-to-skin contact influences mother's milk to let down, and for her supply to become hearty.

4) The cues that a baby is hungry include:

Sucking on her fingers
Sucking on his fist
Turning her head from side to side
Opening and closing her mouth (fishy lips)
Smacking his lips
Poking out her tongue

Crying is the last sign of late (advanced) hunger and babies attach to the breast more easily before they reach this desperate, hungry, crying stage. Imagine you are hungry but cannot do anything to get yourself the food you need... first, you ask for it by the means of communication you have. If your repeated requests are ignored, and you become famished, you eventually cry out in anguish, begging someone to pay attention to your need to be fed. Babies' stomachs are very tiny (especially in the first months of life) and while they fill up quickly, they also empty very quickly and baby will be genuinely hungry again soon. Learning your baby's cues and attending to them right away will increase breastfeeding success (and a happy, content baby).

5) Gently massaging the breast towards the nipple while the baby is feeding can increase how much milk the baby gets and help a sleepy baby get more milk. Running a finger or thumb lightly across the baby's chin or cheek will encourage the baby to take another gulp and consume more without falling asleep.

6) Every mother's breastmilk storage capacity is different and this can affect how often a baby breastfeeds or whether a baby will solely nurse on one side at a time, or take both breasts at each nursing session. A mother with a smaller storage capacity may find her baby breastfeeds more often and this is normal for her and her baby - it is not a sign that she doesn't make enough milk. Another mother may find that she has a large storage capacity and her baby nurses less often and takes in more at one time - this is normal for her and her baby. All mothers can increase milk supply by fully emptying the breasts more often. Adjustments in milk supply are easily made in the first 30 days. After that time, it becomes much more difficult, so during the first month post-birth it is essential to nurse on cue and pump extra if you wish to stock up a frozen supply for down the road (or plan to return to work).

7) Emptying the breast is what sends the message to a mother's body to make more milk, so the more often a baby feeds (or the more often the mother pumps) the more milk will be made. It is a matter of basic supply and demand. The body makes more when it is told that it needs more (through frequent use and being emptied). If supplements are used (formula or other solid foods) then nursing/pumping decreases, telling the body that not as much milk is needed - and supply drops. This is the reason supplementing (when a mother doesn't think she has enough milk) is counterproductive and actually leads to a drop in milk supply - the very thing she may have been worried about to begin with. If a mother is pumping, she should strive to fully empty the breasts (in the early months of breastfeeding or anytime she wishes to increase supply). This means to pump for 3 minutes after the very last drop of milk comes out, or for 25 minutes - whichever comes first.

For additional information on milk supply see resources at the bottom of this article: Lactation Cookies: Increasing Milk Supply

For helpful information on breastfeeding, see books, websites, and articles for nursing moms at Breastfeeding Resources


Knowing Better

By Megan Robinson © 2010
Read more from Robinson at Meg-isms

photo of my oldest son and I by Sandi Heinrich Photography

I have something to say, and it's that I am 100%, gut-wrenchingly, without a doubt, against genital mutilation - otherwise known as circumcision.

This wasn't always the case.

My husband is circumcised, and I never really gave it any thought until my second son was born in late 2008. Our first son was a victim of our ignorance. Sadly and regretfully, he is circumcised. We didn't know any better at the time. We thought it was what we were supposed to do. So that he could "look like his daddy," because it was supposedly cleaner and easier to care for, because if you didn't you were weird, or as one person told me, "It's gross if you don't."

When my first son was born in 2004 we didn't have great internet access to do research. I was also only 25 and none of my friends had kids at the time. I didn't have anyone to teach me or to guide me.

So, if you are wondering why I care so much, and why I am writing about issues like this - it's because I wish I had had someone in my life 6 years ago who would have told me what a mistake I was about to make. Someone to tell me that all of my beliefs and feelings about circumcision were false. Someone to lead me to studies and to the knowledge I would need to make a different choice.

My husband and I made a mistake and we are regretful, but with all of our pain we want to make a difference for other parents and baby boys.

Here are some facts about circumcision that we find worth noting:

1) No health organization in the WORLD recommends the procedure.

2) It is the amputation of a completely normal body part, much like the amputation of a toe or the outer ear.

3) There are many myths surrounding circumcision - examples being that it somehow helps to prevent some diseases and cancers, or that it makes the penis more hygienic.

4) Circumcision is a huge money maker for the medical industry. Money that is hard to give up even though the AAP and WHO have made statements saying that there is no reason to do the procedure.

5) This procedure is highly painful for infants. Babies feel pain at a much greater level than adults. Even though anesthesia is sometimes used, it is never substantial enough to keep the infant from feeling the excruciating pain. Many medical workers or parents will claim that their baby boy slept through the procedure or was calm. This is because they enter a semi-comatose state in order to survive the excessive pain (similar to how you or I might lapse into a coma if someone started cutting our genitals apart). After the procedure baby boys are withdrawn and unsettled. This often interferes with sleep, breastfeeding and bonding. Circumcised baby boys often won't look in their mothers eyes after the procedure. There are studies showing that this kind of trauma in an infant can have LIFE LONG implications!

6) The foreskin has a purpose! It protects the glans (head) from abrasion (which if it is exposed causes a decrease in sensation over the years because of the formation of a callus). It also excretes essential fluids as it is a mucous membrane. It protects the urinary tract from infection and guards against sexually transmitted diseases.

7) The foreskin plays a role in an adult males partner's life too. Many defensive men (and women) will say they are just fine without their foreskin. But one can also be just fine without a finger, arm, toe, etc.

8) There are many risks that go along with the procedure such as hemorrhage, infection, damage to the glans, tightness of the skin on the shaft (painful erection), scarring, and death. Circumcision has a complication rate of 1 in 500 and a death rate of 1 in 500,000. I believe the numbers are along the lines of 200-300 baby boys dying per year from the procedure. These numbers are higher in Africa.

9) Circumcision is a violation of human rights. Thus why it is called genital mutilation. It is the amputation of a human being's body part without their consent.

10) Just because daddy is circumcised doesn't mean baby needs to be too. One of my dear friends was counseling a couple who were expecting their first baby boy any day. The couple didn't really want to cut their son but were distressed that baby should look like his daddy. My friend brought up a good point. She said, "So, dad, if you were missing an arm, would you cut off baby's arm so he would look like you?" This was the ultimate deciding factor for this couple. Of course they wouldn't do this! Every child is unique and needs to be treated as such. If daddy really wishes to 'match' his son, he can consider restoration.

11) "The US has the highest rate of medically unnecessary, non-therapeutic infant circumcision in the world - and yet the HIV infection rate in North America is twice the rate in Europe, where circumcision rates are low." (The Truth about Circumcision and HIV by Gussie Fauntleroy; Doctors Reject Circumcision as HIV Prevention). The only way to protect oneself against as HIV is abstinence, monogamy, barriers, no IV drug/shared needle use and sterile surgical instruments.

I also should say that I understand that there are religious belief issues surrounding circumcision and it is never my intention to insult anyone's religion. I am touching on two religions, Judaism, because I was attacked by someone whose partner is Jewish and they were offended by our stance on the procedure, and the LDS church, because my husband was raised Mormon.

Many Jewish families are choosing not to do the procedure to their baby boys. Dr. Mark Reiss, a retired Jewish physician states, "Growing numbers of American Jews are now leaving their sons intact as they view circumcision as a part of Jewish law that they can no longer accept." There are many Jewish couples that are very active in their religions that now speak out against the procedure and refuse to let it happen to their children. Instead, some are choosing to do a "Brit Shalom" ceremony which translates as "Covenant of Peace" instead of a "Brit Milah" which translates as "Covenant of Blood."

The LDS church has asked that circumcision be done away with. I take this excerpt from "The Book of Mormon on Circumcision" and I encourage you to read the full article.
In Moroni 8:8 of The Book of Mormon, Christ, following his death and resurrection, speaks to the people of the western hemisphere, the Nephites and Lamanites. He says, "Listen to the words of Christ, your Redeemer, your Lord and your God, I came into the world not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance; the whole need no physician, but they that are sick; wherefore, little children are whole, for they are not capable of committing sin; wherefore the curse of Adam is taken from them in me, that it hath no power over them, and the law of circumcision is done away in me.
To quote my husband, "In the Mormon faith, it is taught that the body is a temple and is not to be marked, so much so that many women in the faith refuse to pierce their ears. Why, then, would it be okay to permanently alter the body of an infant male, who was created in God's own image? Especially when there is scripture that states clearly that it is no longer a ritual of significance?"

Someday we will apologize to our first born son and explain to him what was done to him and why. My deepest hope is that he forgives us for making a decision about his body that was not ours to make.

I will not stop fighting for the end of circumcision. I cannot stand by and let other misguided or misinformed parents make the same mistake we made. The pain I feel is tremendous and I am going to need therapy (yes, seriously) to overcome my feelings of remorse. If I can prevent this from happening to other sweet mamas and baby boys, I will. This is not an attack on those that have chosen to do the procedure; after all, I fall into this category. All one needs to do is to watch a circumcision being done, read what it really is, and how it's done, and what it does to a baby's brain. Once one does this, I highly doubt they would let it be done to their sweet child.

I am happy and proud to say that our second son is intact. When he was born we still didn't know exactly what circumcision was, but we knew it didn't feel right. I am so glad we made the decision not to cut him by following our primal instincts. And now that we know the truth about circumcision, we are even more thankful that we left his body whole.

If you would like a circumcision information pack sent to you, I will gladly pay to have one sent. It contains tons of great information to read and also comes with videos to watch. All you have to do is send me a message ( and I will take care of it.

I mentioned being informed earlier in this post. I encourage you to visit this page as there are many excellent articles on circumcision, among other peaceful parenting ideas.

And finally, I must thank those of you who are making a difference and standing up against this horrid procedure. I wish I could do more, I wish I could reach farther. I am honored to know that so many of you feel the same and are making a difference for our baby boys, their parents and their future partners.

"I did then what I knew how to do. Now that I know better, I do better."
~ Maya Angelou


La Separación de la Madre y el Niño

By Dr. George Wootan, M.D.
Autor de Tome el Control de la Salud de su Hijo
[Read this article in English here]

Voy a meterme en un tema espinoso, un tema que me trae casi tantos problemas como mis ideas sobre el destete: la separación de la madre y el niño. Imagine por un momento que está en el mercado con su niña de seis meses. Ella comienza a hacer ruiditos porque tiene hambre, y usted la mira y le dice con confianza, “Te alimentaré en media hora, cuando lleguemos a casa.” ¿Ella sonreirá y esperará pacientemente hasta que usted termine de hacer las compras? ¡Por supuesto que no! Desde el punto de vista de su bebé, o hay comida ahora, o no hay comida en el mundo. ¡La hambruna ha atacado allí mismo en medio del mercado!

Los bebés pequeños y los que ya gatean, hasta más o menos la edad de tres años (36 meses), tienen muy poca idea del tiempo. Para ellos, solamente hay dos tiempos: ahora o nunca. Decirle a un bebé que Mamá regresará en una hora o a las 5 de la tarde, es esencialmente lo mismo que decirle que Mamá se fue para siempre, porque ella no tiene idea de lo que significan esos tiempos.

Permítanme presentar la idea de que la necesidad de la madre es tan fuerte en un bebé como la necesidad de comida, y que no hay substituto para una madre bien cercana. Cuando está cansado, dolorido o molesto, necesita de su madre para tener confort y seguridad. Es verdad, no necesita a Mamá todo el tiempo, pero cuando la necesita, la necesita ahora. Si se lastima la rodilla, o si lastiman sus sentimientos, no puede poner su necesidad en espera por dos horas hasta que Mamá llegue a casa, y la niñera – o incluso Papá – simplemente no servirán tan bien como si Mamá estuviera allí.

De modo que sí, esto es lo que estoy diciendo: Una madre no debería dejar a su niño por un tiempo extenso hasta aproximadamente los tres años, cuando ya ha desarrollado alguna idea del tiempo. Sabrán que esto ha comenzado a suceder cuando entienda lo que significan “ayer”, “mañana” y “esta tarde”, y cuando su niño empiece a para más tiempo lejos suyo voluntariamente.

Por supuesto, si usted sabe que su niña siempre duerme a ciertas horas, puede dejarla brevemente con alguien mientras duerme la siesta. Si hace esto, sin embargo, la niñera debe ser alguien a quien ella conozca bien, y no hay garantías de que no vaya a elegir este día para alterar su rutina y despertarse mientras usted no está. Esto podría ser traumático para ella si la persona es alguien que conoce poco, y más aún si la niñera es una extraña. Es importante que usted haga el esfuerzo de estar disponible para ella cuando está despierta y puede necesitarla.

Entiendo que no separar al niño de su madre durante los primeros tres años de vida puede ser difícil. Mantener esto presupone que la familia está financieramente segura aún sin el salario de la madre. Y, desafortunadamente, esto no es una realidad para alguna gente. Yo no argumentaría que una madre que debe trabajar para mantener a su familia está haciendo menos que lo mejor posible para sus hijos por salir a trabajar. Sin embargo, creo que muchas madres vuelven al trabajo no por necesidad, sino por que ellas (o sus esposos) desean mantener el nivel de vida de dos salarios al que se han acostumbrado. Esos padres necesitan hacer un poco de introspección sobre lo que realmente necesitan, y no sacrificar los mejores intereses de su niño.

Si debe dejar a su niño por varias horas por día, hay algunas cosas que puede intentar hacer para compensar la separación. Una de ellas es, por supuesto, darle el pecho hasta que el niño mismo desee el destete. Otra es compartir el sueño con el niño hasta que él decida que está listo para su propia cama. Si debe pasar 8 horas lejos de su niño, haga un esfuerzo por permanecer las 16 horas restantes en contacto físico cercano. Este esfuerzo extra ayudará mucho a que él se sienta seguro y desarrolle un apego saludable hacia usted.

En nuestra familia hemos notado que muchos de los eventos que requerirían que dejemos a nuestro bebé en casa son eventos que no nos importa especialmente dejar de lado. También hemos descubierto que dado que nuestros niños ven sus necesidades atendidas con rapidez, son felices y se sienten seguros, y podemos llevarlos a la mayoría de los eventos sociales. No intento decir que nunca vaya a toparse con problemas, pero generalmente, encontrará que si se ocupa de las necesidades inmediatas de su niño sosteniéndolo, dándole el pecho y amándolo, será un placer que tenerlo alrededor.

George Wootan, M.D. es un medico familiar matriculado, y asociado médico de la Liga Internacional La Leche. Él y su esposa, Pat, son padres de once niños y abuelos de veintiuno. El Dr. Wootan ha practicado medicina por 33 años, enfocándose en pediatría, medicina familiar, cuidados geriátricos y enfermedades crónicas. Da conferencias a nivel nacional sobre los temas de salud infantil, envejecimiento saludable, nutrición, bienestar y Medicina Funcional.

The Umbilical Cord

By Kathy Petersen
posted with author's permission
read more from Petersen at: Woman to Woman Childbirth Education and here on Facebook

The umbilical cord is what connects the baby to the mother. Soon after conception, the baby (embryo may be the “correct” term for this stage of development) burrows into the lush uterine lining, and part of the embryo becomes the placenta while the rest of it becomes the baby, inside the amniotic sac. The placenta grows along with the baby, and although the mother’s and baby’s blood never mix, the placenta is where the oxygen and waste exchange happens–the mother’s circulatory system gives the baby oxygen and nutrients while taking away the baby’s carbon dioxide and waste.

Generally, there are no problems with this wonderful system; but occasionally, the placenta does not grow very big, or the umbilical cord can develop a knot, or wrap around the baby. Many home-birthing midwives will testify that maternal nutrition plays a vital role in a well-developed placenta, which only makes sense - "you are what you eat." Check out The Brewer Diet for more information on a healthful diet.

The umbilical cord can develop a knot if the baby moves through a loop in the umbilical cord. This happens very early in pregnancy, when the baby has ample room in the womb for these free movements; later, the baby is much more squished in the confines of the uterus. Most of the time, a knot is not a problem, but a “true knot” can potentially be so tight that it compromises blood flow through the umbilical cord to the baby. This later danger is very rare, and usually cannot be known before birth.

a "true knot"

Probably what most people worry about when it comes to umbilical cords is that they will be wrapped around the baby’s neck. This is called a “nuchal” cord (from the Latin word for “neck”). This is much more common, occurring in up to 25% of all births, but only rarely causes problems. My first son, for example, had the cord wrapped around his neck once, and the midwife couldn’t get it off before his body was fully born, but the cord was kept intact and my baby had no problems whatsoever. In fact, I did not even know it had happened until a few years later when I was looking through my copy of the birth records. What might cause problems is if the cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck and cuts off or diminishes circulation to the baby’s brain either in utero or as the baby is being born. But again, this is rare.

The typical response to a nuchal cord is to unloop it from the baby’s neck after the head is born and prior to full birth if at all possible; and if it’s too tight, to cut the cord and unwind it. (The cord will be clamped in two places, and the cut will be made between, to minimize blood loss to the baby, and mess on the floor from the placenta side of the cord.) Some birth attendants will instead “somersault” the baby out of the birth canal, keeping the baby’s head close to the mother’s body. This allows the baby to be born while still keeping the cord intact (occasionally, a nuchal cord might prevent the baby from coming out because it makes the cord too short). With the baby fully out, the cord can then be unwound from the baby’s neck or body, thus allowing the full amount of oxygen that sustained the baby inside to keep coming to the baby on the outside, while he makes his transition to breathing.

It may be possible to identify a nuchal cord with ultrasound, but there are some considerations you should have.

First, most nuchal cords do not cause problems. There are fetal tests that can be done if a nuchal cord is suspected or known that can reassure you as to fetal well-being (including you doing “kick-counts” at home to make sure your baby is moving adequately).

Second, ultrasound is not 100% reliable, and you have to judge the benefits vs. risks of this or any other procedure.

And finally, is a story one of my friends shared with me (she is a doula at a birth center, as well as childbirth educator). A couple discovered via ultrasound that their baby had a nuchal cord (after the woman was at term, but prior to onset of labor). The woman was terrified of the baby strangling herself, so she decided to have a C-section right then. The birth center offered to keep her overnight and continue to monitor the baby, and let her see that the baby was just fine, but she was too scared to accept. Within a couple of hours, she had had the C-section, and the doctor said there was no nuchal cord.

Babies move in utero; they twist and turn. It is easily understandable that the baby could wrap herself up in the cord, and then unwrap herself just as easily.

Related Information:

Nuchal Cord Midwifery Files

Umbilical Cord Around Baby's Neck: Dangerous or Not?

Neonatal Resuscitation: Life that Failed

Gloria Lemay: Cord Around the Neck

Unwrapping a Nuchal Cord [video]

Lotus Birth

In this video on pregnancy myths, OB/GYN Hakakha reminds parents (in the 7th section of this video) that the umbilical cord is often around a baby's neck while inutero and at birth and it is very rarely a cause for concern.

The Truth About Epidurals

By Carol Gray
posted with author's permission
read more from Gray at:

First a word or two about birth physiology: Labor is almost universally uncomfortable for mothers, and often painful for babies. One of the ways we cope with pain is to produce beta-endorphin. Beta-endorphin is an opiate-like brain chemical - the same one responsible for the so-called "runner’s high." It reduces pain and increases good feelings.

In a typical labor, pain increases over time. As the pain increases, the production of beta-endorphin also increases. Mothers and babies both produce beta-endorphin. The beta-endorphin produced by mother also passes on to baby through the placenta.

At the moment of birth, the pain of labor suddenly and dramatically decreases for the mother. Mothers and babies are flooded with endorphins that, with little to no pain, cause euphoria.

We know that endorphins create a state of dependence. After a medically undisturbed birth mom and baby will repeatedly seek to recreate that initial high of birth euphoria with close skin to skin contact. We know that babies need this contact to survive and develop normally.

Sometimes babies are hurt in the birth process. It’s obvious when they come out with swelling, bruises or broken bones. Sometimes they appear frightened or shocked. In that moment they are supposed to rely on an extra boost of endorphins from their mothers.

The Truth: Mothers who have epidurals typically experience little to no pain in their labors. If mothers experience little to no pain, they produce little to no beta-endorphin. When mothers produce little to no beta-endorphin, their babies have more painful births. This pain could be extreme. This pain can interfere with bonding. There is no state of euphoria for mom or baby. We have no idea what the lifetime effects of this could be.

Carol Gray, Midwife, LMT, practices and teaches Craniosacral Therapy for infants and mamas. She also attends home births in Portland, Oregon.

For information on the subject of infant pain in labor and birth, and gentle birth, see:

Birth As We Know It [video]

Epidurals: Risks and Concerns for Mother and Baby
 - Dr. Buckley

Primal Health

Birth and Breastfeeding

The Scientification of Love

Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering

Gentle Birth Choices

Birth Reborn

Infant Pain Impacts Adult Sensitivity [article]

Birth From Baby's Perspective [article]

Hawaii Mother and Creator of ERGO Baby Carrier Sells Company for $91 Million

By Danelle Frisbie

Karin Frost demonstrates the ERGO Baby Carrier she developed in 2002. She's still able to use it with her son, Keala Kaj, age 5.

The ERGO Baby Carrier is widely popular among peaceful parenting moms and dads. In fact, it is one of the most commonly seen babywearing devices in our "Real Men Wear Babies" album, along with the Moby Wrap and various woven wraps, and the ERGO is especially loved by those with older/heavier/taller babies who need adequate hip support. We have one at our house, and enjoy it despite the fact that our 40lb two year old refuses to be worn on our backs. ERGO can be used as a front and side/hip carry as well.

ERGO sells its carriers and products through 700 retail stores and websites in about 20 countries. There is the original ERGO (which comes in an assortment of wonderful colors), the Sport ERGO, the Performance ERGO, and the organic ERGO. The carriers range in price from $105 to $148.

ERGO wasn't always a multi million dollar baby carrier. In fact, it was created in Maui just 8 years ago by a new mother, Karin Frost. Living out of her van and taking showers at the beach, Frost probably did not expect to one day have a creation worth so much. Her story reminds me a bit of Hygia Halfmoon's experiences when, leaving an unhealthy relationship, Halfmoon became a newly single mom and decided she wasn't going to give up mothering her children. She got creative and started making making her Cozy Cradle Babysling to support herself and her children. Each of these mothers has a unique tale of primal mothering in a modern world.

Frost, who is now 49, constructed her carrier in 2002, also as a new mom. The carrier quickly caught on with friends, and in 2003 she founded "ERGO Baby" to make the back-pack style carrier for others. She writes about when her son was just a few days old, "My strong desire to pick up [my son] and hold him close to my heart dominated any other need. My mothering instinct to keep him safe, secure and content has always been my driving force, and when I started ERGObaby, my intention was to create a product line that would promote and enhance the ability of parents to safely and comfortably keep their babies close to them as often as possible."

In 2007 Parenting Magazine named the ERGO Baby Carrier one of its Top 20 products in the past 20 years. This catapulted ERGO to the top of the line and Frost set up manufacturing in China. (Halfmoon still custom makes and distributes her Cozy Cradle Babysling to mothers' specific measurements, has a heart for providing slings to teen moms, and is celebrating 25 years of sling making this month).

Frost, in a slightly different turn of events, has agreed to sell 84% of the Pukalani-based company she started to a Connecticut firm that invests in mid-size businesses with attractive growth prospects. The pricetag? $91 million. Not bad for an 8 year business that Frost started from her home as a mom striving to make ends meet.

Compass Diversified Holdings publicly announced that it is paying Frost a combination of cash, Compass stock and assumption of personal debt totaling $91 million. The shares of Compass stock are worth $6.9 million. The cash and debt figures were not disclosed.

Frost notes that, "Eight years later, my research into the science behind babywearing has affirmed my mothering instincts. I know, beyond a doubt, that bonding with and nurturing our babies from infancy with the help of babywearing is absolutely the best way."

And so it is.

Wrongful Circumcision of Baby Mario: Court Documents

Vera Delgado with son, Mario, speaks to Univision at the Genital Integrity Demonstration for Baby Mario on Friday, September 17 outside South Miami Hospital. Thank you to As Nature Intended for this photo.

The following is the court document filed on Monday, September 13 by Spencer Aronfeld, Esq., on behalf of Vera Delgado. Delgado's son, Mario Viera, was taken from the NICU and circumcised against his will and without the consent of his mother at South Miami Hospital on August 2nd, 2010. For information on Baby Mario's case and how to protect your son, see more of the story and interviews here.


Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO VIERA, a minor,
by and through undersigned counsel, sue the Defendants, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D. and SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, and would allege as follows:

1. This is an action for personal injury damages, with damages in excess of the minimum jurisdictional limits of this Honorable Court, to-wit: Fifteen Thousand and no/IOO ($15,000.00) Dollars, exclusive of costs and interest.

2. At all times material to hereto, the Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, was and is a resident of Miami-Dade County, Florida, and is the parent and natural guardian of Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor, is otherwise sui juris.

3. Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, is the minor child of Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, and is a resident of Miami-Dade County, Florida.

4. At all times material hereto, Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., individually and/or as an agent, apparent agent or employee of herself, was and is a licensed medical doctor under the laws of the State of Florida, authorized to provide health care services to individuals such as the Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor, in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

5. At all time material hereto, Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, Inc., was and is a licensed hospital under the laws of the State of Florida, authorized to provide health caie services to individuals such as Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor, in Miami-Dade County, Florida


6. At all times material to this Complaint, the Defendants had the responsibility to provide
medical care and treatment of the Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor.

7. On or about July 24, 2010 Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, gave birth to MARIO VIERA, a minor, at SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC. and admitted into its Neonatal Intensive Care Unit due to birth related complications.

8. Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO VIERA, a minor, repeatedly informed Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., its staff and agents that she did not want or authorize the Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor, to be circumcised.

9. On or about August 2, 2010, while Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a minor, was still under the care of Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC.'S, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Defendants, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., nurses and agents of Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., and without consent performed an unauthorized amputation of the foreskin of his penis.


Plaintiff adopts and realleges the allegations contained in paragraphs 1 through 9 as though fully
set forth herein.

10. On or about August 2, 2010, at the hospital operated by Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., the Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., with force and against the consent of Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO VIERA, a minor, performed an unauthorized amputation of the foreskin of his penis.

11. The unauthorized amputation of the foreskin of his penis was committed by the Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., while she performed the medical procedure on the Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, in furtherance of her duties as an employee, servant, staff member and/or agent of the Defendant soum MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC.

12. As a result of these wrongful and malicious acts of Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO VIERA, a minor, has suffered greatly in mind and body and will continue to suffer damages.

WHEREFORE, Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO VIERA, a minor, demands judgment for damages against the Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., and such other and further relief as this Court deems just and proper.


Plaintiff adopts and realleges the allegations contained in paragraphs 1 through 12 as though fully set forth herein.

13. On or about August 2, 2010, the Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC.,
operated a hospital providing Neonatal care in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

14. On that date, Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, was a patient at the hospital and therefore on the premises lawfully.

15. At all times relevant the Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., owed a duty to protect the Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, and is responsible for any and all injuries sustained on its premises to patients in its care.

16. At all times material hereto, the Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., breached its duty by failing to warn Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, or by allowing a dangerous condition on the premises, to-wit, their employee and/or agent Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D., to perform an unauthorized surgical procedure without consent on Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR.

17. As a direct and proximate result of Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC.'S, negligence, Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, suffered bodily injury that is permanent within a reasonable degree of medical probability and resulting pain and suffering, disability, disfigurement, mental anguish, loss of capacity for the enjoyment of life, expense of hospitalization, medical and nursing care and treatment. The losses are either permanent or continuing and Plaintiff will suffer the losses in the future.

WHEREFORE, Plaintiff, VERA DELGADO, as parent and natural guardian of MARIO
VIERA, a minor, demands judgment for damages against the Defendants SOUTH MIAMI
HOSPITAL, INC., and for such other and further relief as this Court deems just and proper.


Plaintiff adopts and realleges the allegations contained in paragraphs 1 through 17 as though fully set forth herein.

18. At all times relevant hereto the Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., did employ agents, employees, officers, staff, administrators, representatives, servants and maintenance personnel, and said Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., exercised jurisdiction and control over the procedures which said agents, employees, officers, staff administrators, representatives, servants and maintenance personal had the privilege to perform. Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., determined the qualifications and lack of qualifications of said personnel relating to those duties which were devised by said Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., for the agents, employees, officers, staff, administrators, representatives, servants and maintenance personnel.

19. At all times relevant, the Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., negligently
hired, trained, supervised and/or retained its employee, servant, staff member or agent, who at the time of the incident herein were on staff to provide medical care and assistance to Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, a MINOR.

20. That the Defendant, MARY JEAN PAZOS, M.D, with the assistance of employees and agents of Defendant South MH performed an unauthorized surgical procedure on Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, to wit: the amputation of the foreskin of his penis.

21. As a direct and proximate result of Defendant, SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC.'S,
negligence, Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, suffered bodily injury that is permanent within a reasonable degree of medical probability and resulting pain and suffering, disability, disfigurement, mental anguish, loss of capacity for the enjoyment of life, expense of hospitalization, medical and nursing care and treatment. The losses are either permanent or continuing and Plaintiff will suffer the losses in the future.

WHEREFORE, Plaintiff, MARIO VIERA, A MINOR, demands judgment for damages against the Defendant SOUTH MIAMI HOSPITAL, INC., and for such other and further relief as this court deems just and proper.

DATED: this 13th day of September 2010.

Attorneys for Plaintiff
3132 Ponce de Leon Boulevard
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
Telephone: (305) 441-0440
Facsimile: (305) 441-0198

Spencer Marc Aronfeld, Esq.
Fla. Bar No.: 0905161


newborn onesies available here
to help protect boys born in U.S. hospitals
(various colors available)

Is Your Baby On A Nursing Strike?

By Alisa Ikeda

Babies are notorious for fooling their moms into thinking they are weaning. Beginning at around three to five months or later, some babies abruptly refuse to nurse. Known as a "nursing strike," periods during which babies stop breastfeeding for several days can be caused by any number of factors, all temporary and surmountable:

~ A cold or stuffy nose, which inhibits breathing while nursing

~ An ear infection, which causes pressure or pain while sucking and swallowing

~ Discomfort from teething, a cold sore, or an infection (such as thrush)

~ A fever or a heat wave that makes bodily closeness less appealing

~ Fear that Mom may yell as she did last time he tested those new chompers on her

~ A new found preference for bottles (if your child is given frequent bottles, he may like the faster milk flow, have nipple confusion, or be reacting to a reduction in Mother's milk supply as supplementation impacts milk supply)

~ Overuse of a pacifier, which may meet some of his sucking needs, but leave him uninterested in the breast

~ A major disruption in routine, such as moving or mom returning to work after a maternity leave

~ A long separation from Mom - a business trip or a weekend away [For a securely attached baby, any time apart from mom often feels like an eternity]

~ Reduced milk supply - if you've been stressed out, your supply may be reduced

~ A change in the taste of Mom's milk, caused by the resumption of your period, spicy or unusual foods, a vitamin or drug, or a new pregnancy

~ A new deodorant, soap, or perfume applied on or near the breasts

~ Strong let-down - the milk may be letting down too quickly for Baby's liking, which may make him frustrated and refuse to latch on

~ Poor nursing habits - at around four months, when a baby begins to realize life is happening around him while he nurses, he may be squirmy or position himself awkwardly at the breast

~ Too much to do - busy six-to-nine-month-olds are easily distracted and often opt to "snack" at the breast over settling down for a full meal

~ And sometimes for no perceptible reason at all!

Nursing strikes can be trying to say the least. Mothers feel understandably anxious, rejected, and panicky about whether their babies are starving themselves. It is easy to jump to the conclusion that a baby who doesn't want to nurse is weaning himself. But if the refusal to nurse is sudden, it is not a sign of readiness to wean. A baby who is itching to wean will almost always do so gradually, over a period of many weeks, months, or even years. And it is highly unlikely that a baby under a year old [or even two years] will self-wean.

If your baby is on strike, now is a good time to reaffirm your commitment to breastfeeding. With patience and support, you can overcome the setback within five or six days:

~ Offer the breast frequently and give your baby lots of skin-to-skin contact. Wear your baby.

~ If you suspect strong let-down is the culprit (baby arches back, pushes away, or gags), express some milk (pump for a few minutes) before feeding.

~ Visit the pediatrician to rule out any medical causes (such as an ear infection or thrush) if suspected.

~ Pump milk as often as your baby had been nursing, which will help prevent plugged ducts or engorgement, will prevent milk supply reduction, and will provide your baby with the milk he needs in the meantime.

~ Don't be tempted to supplement with non-breastmilk items (baby won't starve himself - really!) and do keep him nourished by offering expressed milk in a cup, a spoon, syringe, or an eyedropper (if you must use a bottle as a last resort, opt for a slow-flow nipple that mimics the breast such as the Adiri, Breastflow, or Born Free).

~ Relax - it will help maintain or build up your milk supply and calm your baby.

~ Try nursing when your baby is sleepy and in an environment free from distraction (a quiet, dimly lit room). Lay down to nurse.

~ Vary your nursing position. Try nursing in a rocking chair or while walking around, as the movement may be soothing to your baby.

~ See your lactation consultant or contact La Leche League for advice and support.

Keep in mind that your nursing relationship will evolve over the months. It is natural for babies to have hungry phases and less hungry phases just as you do. And breastfeeding patterns change as babies move into various developmental stages (remember back when your now grinning, kicking, busybody of a nurser barely opened an eye when at the breast?).


Alisa Ikeda is a writer, certified instructor of infant massage (CIIM), and mother of three in Marin County, California. Visit her website at:

Additional Information on Nursing Strikes and Weaning:

La Leche League International Nursing Strike FAQ

Mothering Your Nursing Toddler (book)

Tips for Nursing Strikes

Help! My Baby Won't Nurse (

Surviving a Nursing Strike

Breastfeeding Latch Trick (if baby is young and latch is a problem)

When a Baby Won't Nurse

La Leche League International: Helping Babies Reluctant to Nursing

Toddler Nursing Strike

Natural Weaning

A Natural Age of Weaning

A Time to Wean

How Weaning Happens (book)

Natural Weaning Age (pdf) from The Baby Bond (book)

Do Babies Under 12 months self-wean? (

Breastfeeding Older Children (book)

Adventures in Tandem Nursing (book)

Breastfeeding mothers are welcome to join The Breastfeeding Group:

World Breastfeeding Challenge 2010

In 2001 the Quintessence Breastfeeding Challenge started in the Canadian province of British Columbia with 856 babies and their mothers at 26 sites. Last year there were 4,766 babies at 246 sites in 21 countries. And they were all 'latched on' at 11am, local time. This year, the Breastfeeding Challenge continues to grow globally as additional people join in to support breastfeeding and human milk donation.

Lucy Mills contacted me with the request that I pass along this invitation to Iowa mothers in the Cedar Rapids area to join in their Challenge location. As I've mentioned, there is a special place in my heart for Iowa and her mothers/babies because of my many years spent in the amidst the fields and universities of the Midwest. I figured this would also be the perfect opportunity to remind everyone, in every location on earth (with internet access, that is), of the Quintessence World Breastfeeding Challenge that will take place BY YOU on October 2nd. See below for details on how to find the challenge site nearest you, or to register and host your own! Let's together celebrate the pure goodness of human milk for human babies!

Attention all Breastfeeding Mothers

Be a part in the Quintessence World Record Challenge
Saturday, October 2, 2010 at 10:30 am
“Latch and count” at 11:00 am

St. Luke’s Hospital - Schwartz ABC & Room 163

The challenge is for the most mothers who are breastfeeding simultaneously in a set geographic area – province, territory, state or country as a percentage of the birth rate.

Mark your calendars!

For further information: Find us here on Facebook!

Contact Lucy Mills at or Joy McCulla

There will be sites all around the world!

Come show your support for breastfeeding!

If you are in Iowa: Click here for the BFC 2010 Cedar Rapids Flyer to Print & Post

More from the Quintessence Foundation
How it the Challenge Works:

What: The breastfeeding challenge is a fun “competition” where every child “wins” because they are breastfed! It is an event challenge to determine which geographic area (province, state or territory) has the most breastfeeding babies, as a percentage of the birthrate, “latched on” at 11am local time.

When: October 2nd, 2010

Why: to celebrate breastfeeding and milk-banking, and demonstrate promotion, protection and support for breastfeeding women and their families. It’s a chance for education and peer support done in a fun social way.

Location: a health unit or hospital, local coffee shop, mall, or any other venue.

Numbers: 2-??

"Latch on" 11am local time. Some sites are a few breastfeeding women who get together to “be counted” and visit, while others are much larger events with lunch, raffles, education, speakers, door prizes etc. The event itself is up to you!

Registration: Online at no cost (or option to print and mail) Visit

Read More about the Quintessence World Breastfeeding Challenge

Find a site that is already registered to participate on October 2nd or sign up to create/host a site if there is not already one by you.

If you would like your site listed on this page for peaceful parenting readers, drop us an email with details: peacefulparents {at}

"I Survived the Bris" Onesie & Maternity Shirt

I am not sure which is worse - the smiley happy face baby on a newborn onesie that says "i survived the bris" (complete with two pairs of scissors on either side) for your freshly cut son to sport, or the description offered by Lil' Squirt Tees on CafePress:

Very funny kid's t-shirt! This I Survived The Bris t-shirt is adorable and funny and perfect for any little Jewish boy! Let the world know what a man you are and that you survived the bris!

There is nothing funny about this shirt. Nor is there anything 'adorable' about amputating healthy organs from a non-consenting minor. The babies who are subjected to these horrors are certainly not smiling. And boys born to Jewish parents have the same basic human rights to genital integrity that all other boys, born to parents of varying faiths, have as well. There are numerous Jewish men and women, strong in their faith, electing today to keep their sons intact. In fact, Dr. Ronald Goldman, Dr. Paul Fleiss, Miriam Pollack, and Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon are just a handful of the well known and influential Jewish parents who have pointed out that circumcision is not mandatory for a man to be a Jew. Many more are opting to have a Brit Shalom (a non-cutting ceremony) for their son.

Of course this all gets into a subject that reaches far deeper than the maker of this onesie likely ever meant to dig. Though, maybe it would do him/her some good to check out any number of the resources on Judaism and circumcision.

The last description line is especially sad. "Let the world know what a man you are..." This is a newborn baby we are talking about. He is not a man. Nor do we wish him to be at this point in his dependent, infant development. There is absolutely nothing "manly" about being held down against your will, only to have the most sacred of your body organs painfully sliced away - removing an important part of your penis you can never again get back. And there is certainly nothing "manly" about the adult who is subjecting a helpless baby to such trauma. A real man strives to protect his children against all undue harm.

I'd go one step further to suggest there is also nothing "manly" (or respectful) about designing or selling or describing such a onesie in this fashion. How terribly inconsiderate of the 100-300 who die each year in the U.S. alone as a result of circumcision surgery - those babies who didn't survive this unnecessary amputation. And so many more are left with negative consequences.

Yet, lest we forget this newborn baby, with his penis being cut apart, is just days old, having recently exited from the warm safety and security of his mother's womb, a maternity shirt is offered with the same design. It is strategically placed over the location where this tiny being is rapidly growing and preparing to enter his mother's loving arms - those same arms he will depend on to keep him safe once he has made his way there.

But, hey, why not announce to the world ahead of time "what a man" your newborn baby will be if he faces the blade and the blood... right?

Contact Lil' Squirt Tees at:
or by filling out this form

Diaper Free! Photo Gallery

Emma Kwasnica
is a gentle mom, birth and babies advocate, and a woman I am blessed to call friend. Her reflection on raising her youngest daughter diaper free from birth, beautifully sums up one of the joys of elimination communication (EC). Emma told me:

I have never felt so much love for a tiny human, nor taken so much pleasure in meeting such basic (elimination) needs. I know now in my heart that this is *supposed* to be what mothering feels like. And full-time EC is almost exclusively responsible for these euphoric feelings.

Peaceful parenting readers have been sending in their EC photos for quite some time now. They were added to the Diaper Free! album on our Facebook page, but were always being flagged by unfriendly viewers and deleted by Facebook. As a result, we've decided to move the photo gallery here instead. If you'd like your diaper free photo added to the collection, to provide other parents with an idea of all the wonderful ways EC works, please send it to us at peacefulparents @ If you are a parent who submitted one of the photos below, and you'd like your name or website listed below your photo, or if you would like a watermark added to your picture, we'd be happy to do so as well. Drop us an email and we'll add the details.

One additional item we should note for those who may look at this album but go no further under the guise that EC equals no diapers at all - this is not necessarily the case. In fact, most EC parents have cloth as a backup. As one Continuum Family moderator put it, "Diaper-free does not mean no diapers - it means being free from dependence on diapers. Using back up is perfectly legit EC."

For information on Diaper Freedom / Elimination Communication (EC) / Natural Infant Hygiene see video/resources/articles linked on this page and check out any of the great books below.

Infant Potty Training
(note that this is also an EC book - not a 'training' book)

Our Babies, Ourselves

Our Babies, Ourselves is a book that covers many aspects of parenting - elimination needs being one of them. I've heard many people in the U.S. say that EC 'can't work' because a baby isn't able to control his/her eliminations. This is not true, but is a culturally bound assumption based on the society we've grown up within and the myths we've been told by others. To not know and trust and recognize infant cues from birth is not a universal phenomenon. In fact, quite the opposite is true for most humans around the world, and throughout most of human history. Quite frankly, we would not still be here if we'd always parented in a "DAF" (detached American fashion). Small's book is a fascinating one for many reasons, and she addresses a number of parenting assumptions taken for granted in various cultures around the world.

This is yet another excellent book that covers far more than babies' elimination needs. The Continuum Concept is an anthropological look at how and why baby-friendly means of care lead to healthy, secure individuals and a well, functioning society. There are too many good things to say about Liedloff's book, so I will let you discover it all for yourself within her pages.

Now, onto the gallery...

tiny baby undies ~ sans diaper!

pottying in a bush

in a tub

outside the car
(EC goes anywhere baby goes!)

Many cultures have EC gear that is more commonly available than it is in the U.S.
The EC Store has a lot of helpful items for purchase or for sparking your own diaper free creation ideas.

"When Dad is in charge of EC"
(in jest - not to be taken literally - but good to see baby is intact!)

These custom sewn EC pants were crafted by Deirdre at Continuum

Newborn sleeps diaper free - draped gently to catch misses

Emma Kwasnica's night time stash of supplies by the bed

Cathy Woodhouse's stash of supplies in her den

The line up of pottys at Kwasnica's home
(these put our mere two to shame!)

Many EC items pictured here can be found discounted for sale at the
Peaceful Parenting Amazon Store

The EC Store had a limited supply of these Babywunder Deluxe Clear pottys. They were loved by some because you could easily see through them to identify 'business' that had taken place. However, they were more pricey, and broke easier. They are currently out of stock at the EC Store.



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