No Greater Joy Ministries "Biblical" Parenting Couple Beats Child to Death



We received the following letter at peaceful parenting recently and found it important enough to share with other readers (author's name kept intact with his permission). Please be wise when electing to follow any given parenting 'method' that goes against natural, normal, gentle, instinctual, primal parenting of your little ones. Anything or anyone who advocates for the use of force, violence, harshness, or to ignore, hit, chastise, or not meet the needs of your babies or older children - even if they are lacing their advice with Bible verses - is likely steering parents in a very unhealthy and harmful direction.

~

Feb 5, 2010


Dear peaceful parenting,

My wife and I read your blog daily - we are both abuse survivors, and I am a recovering abuser. We are practicing attachment parenting with our toddler and I am working to mend the scars I caused with my two older children from my previous marriage. It has been a long and difficult road but we are all doing our best to stay committed to breaking the cycle of hurt.

Recently a really terrible thing happened close to our town. A couple who was following some fundamentalist "Biblical parenting" approach from a website beat one of their adopted children to death and left the second one in critical condition. The article that appeared in our local paper is below.

The "Biblical parenting" website this couple was referring to is No Greater Joy Ministries. We read some of the articles there and were appalled at how extreme and cruel their "parenting" advice was. My wife and I both were raised in conservative Christian families, and my family members were fundamental Baptists. However, even we were still both shocked to discover that such deliberately cruel and self-righteously abusive people even exist in the world -- let alone have the influence to indirectly cause the torture and murder of children.

The testimonies that fill the pages of the No Greater Joy site are tragic and extremely upsetting. They unapologetically support breaking the spirit and will of children from birth. They advocate for infant toilet training. They recommend spanking with objects such as a belt, stick, or piece of hose (which was used in the murder near our town), etc. It's truly unbelievable.

They have a huge "ministry" and are apparently influential amongst fundamentalist parents. I do not know what can be done, other than spreading the word about the fact that this abuse is being promoted as "Biblical," and we thought that the peaceful parenting site might be a good place to send the message out.

Thank you for being such a positive inspiration and source of hope. You are appreciated more than you know.


Sincerely,

David Boone
Chico, CA




The following is the local news story printed in The Enterprise Record.

DA links fundamentalist "training" to Paradise girl's death
by Terry Vau Dell

A fundamentalist religious philosophy that espouses corporal punishment to "train" children to be more obedient to their parents and God is now being investigated in connection with the death of a young Paradise girl and serious injuries to her sister.

Butte County District Attorney Mike Ramsey confirmed Thursday that other children in the home who have been interviewed told investigators "this philosophy was espoused by their parents."

Ramsey said he is also exploring a possible connection to a Web site that endorses "biblical discipline" using the same rubber or plastic tube alleged to have been used to whip the two young ridge girls by their adoptive parents.

In court Thursday, a judge granted a two-week postponement before the children's parents, Kevin Schatz, 46, and Elizabeth Schatz, 42, enter a plea to murder and torture charges that could carry two life terms in prison.

The delay will allow the mother to retain legal counsel as her husband did earlier.

The father's attorney, Michael Harvey, declined to comment regarding the specific allegations against the couple until he has a chance to review the evidence.

"All I can say is the family is shocked; they are grieving the loss of their daughter and (ask) that people of faith will pray for everybody involved," the defense attorney stated outside of court Thursday.

The Schatzes were arrested Saturday morning after their adopted daughter, Lydia, age 7, stopped breathing. She was subsequently pronounced dead.

Her 11-year-old sister, Zariah Schatz, remains in critical condition at a Sacramento children's hospital, though she is showing some signs of recovery. The two were adopted at the same time with an infant girl, now 3, from the same African orphanage about three years ago,

Prosecutors allege the two victims were subjected to "hours" of corporal punishment by their parents on successive days last Thursday and Friday with a quarter-inch-wide length of rubber or plastic tubing, which police reportedly recovered from the parents' bedroom.

Police allege that the younger girl was being disciplined for mis-pronouncing a word during a home-school reading lesson the day before she died.

The two young girls reportedly sustained deep bruising and multiple "whip-like" marks on their back, buttocks and legs, which authorities believe resulted in significant muscle tissue breakdown that impaired their kidneys and possibly other vital organs, said Ramsey.

He said investigators are researching a possible connection to an Internet Web site set up by "fundamentalist Christian people" that recommends use of the same whip-like implement "as an appropriate tool for biblical chastisement ... to train a child from infancy to make them a happier child and more obedient to God because they are obedient to the will of their parents," said Ramsey.

The district attorney said some of the Schatzes' six biological children, who were removed from the family home for their protection following the parents' arrest, have made statements suggesting the ridge couple shared this philosophy.

The other children in the home said the same rubber or plastic tube was used on all of them "as a standard method of discipline, but certainly not to the extent of these two girls," Ramsey added.

He said it's not clear at this point whether the Schatzes ever visited the Web site in question, which Ramsey stressed "does not endorse hurting or beating a child," nor is connected to any specific church.

From the research he has done, the district attorney pointed out that "even within the fundamentalist Christian community," parental use of corporal punishment "is subject to a great deal of debate."

The ridge couple remain held on $2 million bail pending entry of plea in two weeks to the murder and torture charges.

~

Two other writers' takes on No Greater Joy Ministries here:

Bring Back the Boycott!

Disciplining to Death


Related peaceful parenting Articles:

How Spanking Changed My Life

Dr. Sears on "Growing Kids God's Way"


Sleep Training and Cry-It-Out Research


Gentle Christian Mothers Site

Gentle Christian Mothers [Facebook] 

~~~~

Perfectly Intact! Birth Certificate


A friend (and fabulous birth advocate and doula in the Hampton Roads area) spotted this card at Target today. It would be nice if each newborn birth certificate reminded us that our little one does indeed come into this world as AMAZING! and PERFECTLY INTACT! ~ No alterations necessary.


While the card makers were likely going for something completely age related, it can easily be double-read as an intactivist message. I may just have to go pick up a couple...

15% Off Fun Onesies/T-shirts


Just wanted to let you know that the fabulous company, Spreadshirt, that makes these t-shirts, onesies, etc. for men, women, kids and babies, has a 15% off St. Patrick's Day sale from now through March 12th on any order of $35. It's a great deal and they are wonderful items - good quality, look great, and stand up nicely to many washes. We've ordered oodles of these items for ourselves and gifts and have always been pleased.

The women's sizes tend to run just a tad smaller than 'average' - so if you typically wear a size large (and are ordering an adult shirt) you may want an XL. The men's sizes seem to be typical. For toddlers, you may want to go up 1 size as well. The onesies are about average in size, and are listed with measurements on the page.
Items on this site are just a sampling of what you'll find. There are several categories to browse (Breastfeeding, Birth, Attachment Parenting, Cloth Diapering, Intactivism, CoSleeping, Babywearing, Un/Homeschool, etc., or you can 'search all categories' at once.)

If you need a color/phrase/style you don't see, let us know and we'll will pass along the word. We do not make, sell, or ship these items, but do help to organize those that are related to natural family living so they are more easily found. Email: peacefulparents@gmail.com with suggestions or requests.

SALE CODES FOR 15% OFF (Through March 12th) ARE:

Put in the code at checkout.

And send us a picture when you get a chance. We love to see all of you in action!






































Never Too Old

By Danelle Frisbie © 2010

Grandma Frisbie, age 96, by MommaBaby Love

My own grandmother, at 96 years of age, has quite the stories to tell about birthin' babies and raising kids in 'her day.' She has filled my quest for knowledge with stories of what it was like to mother little ones in times past. Her tales of parenting are enticing, and continuously prompt me to pose further questions... Never is there enough time during our conversations to cover all ground. And there is so, so much we can learn from the generations before us -- both from their successes, and from their mistakes.

At the age of 95, my grandmother read up on the prepuce and circumcision (there are some things that cannot remain un-discussed when you have me as a granddaughter). You may think intactivist issues would be an area a 95-year-old-woman couldn't care less about -- after all, she's not going to be birthing more babes or influencing anyone in this matter. But still, she read, and highlighted, and underlined, and made notes - devouring the information and knowledge that was never provided to her in the 1940s and 50s when she was having children.

She had a change of heart about the matter, indeed. Said that she 'never knew all of this' and that doctors surely should have provided such information to parents at that time... "We were told it was just a small tip of skin and that it did not hurt. They said it had to be done." She continued spreading the articles and books before her on the kitchen table, "I would think this would be something everyone should know about." Ah, yes.

And so, with that, a wise 95 year old woman - mother, grandmother, and great grandmother, became an intactivist in her own way for the first time in her life -- proving to the world that you are never too young, never too old, to become informed and have a change of heart.

~~~~~~

This tender video below highlights another older couple - also in their 90s. Fran and Marlo Cowan have been married almost 63 years now, and they, too, have a number of stories under their belt to tell. This video was taken when the couple entered the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN and found a piano in the lobby just begging to be played. In an impromptu show, Fran and Marlo entertained others at Mayo that day with their fun rendition of "Old Grey Bonnet."

If nothing else, it will bring a smile to your face.



~~~~~~

As Nature Intended


A friend and colleague in the field of human health and development runs the most excellent organization, As Nature Intended. She recently made this great gear for a birth-and-babies conference that is available for others as well. Check it out here.

As Nature Intended can also be found on Facebook and Twitter. There are few websites that I can whole heartedly recommend, but this is certainly one of them.

Christians: Baptism, Not Circumcision

A colleague recently designed and ordered several products with this slogan. She created the item because, as a Christian woman, she is tired of hearing the (uninformed) excuse from some Christian parents around her that "circumcision is in the Bible, so we should do it."

With this item, she is essentially saying, "IF you are going to be a 'Christ-follower' then Jesus is the 'new covenant' - represented by baptism (and really, by salvation - grace through faith). Circumcision is not only meaningless in the Christian faith, it is also completely contradictory to Christian faith because it is as though one is saying, "Christ is not good enough for me, so I am going to abide by 'old covenant' ways just in case." It is denying one's grace through faith - salvation in Christ.

Circumcision has absolutely NO place in Christianity.

Of course, Jesus' close followers and the early church clearly understood this. Circumcision was entirely forbidden in the newly formed church, and it remained this way for all of Christian history, until some uninformed parents in the U.S. started cutting their boys in the 20th century (at the urging of Kellogg and Graham to 'cleanse' and 'purify' boys and men). Genital cutting was such a grave offense, in fact, that if someone did cut their baby, they would be ex-communicated from the church. At some points and places in Christian history, if a mother did not protect her infant boy from genital harm, she was deemed guilty on several accounts (against her child and against the church) and was subject to stoning.

We thought many of the responses this tshirt brought about were interesting, so are sharing here as an opportunity for further exploration of the topic.



To obtain ample information regarding the place of genital cutting (or lack thereof) in religious practices throughout history, these books are a great place to start:

Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America

Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery

Questioning Circumcision: A Jewish Perspective

Covenant of Blood: Circumcision and Gender in Rabbinic Judaism

Circumcision Exposed: Rethinking a Medical and Cultural Tradition

Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma

What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision

Circumcision: What Every Parent Should Know

A Surgical Temptation: The Demonization of the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain

For additional reading pertaining specifically to Christianity and Circumcision see this page of resources.


Additional resources regarding circumcision (books, articles, online sites) can be found here.

Castor Oil Pack Therapy

By Danelle Frisbie © 2010


I've recently received a number of inquiries from mothers with concerns related to breastfeeding or c-section healing who may benefit from Castor oil pack therapy. I have used Castor oil pack therapy myself to aid in healing from surgery and when, after 7 months of exclusive breastfeeding and during a time of high stress, I developed a deep and throbbing pain in one breast which lasted for several days. After starting with Castor oil packs, the pain was alleviated quickly and did not return.

Castor oil pack therapy has been used by humans for as long as we have recorded human history. It was seen as the most healing of agents in antiquity. So much, in fact, that ancient Romans came to call the Castor seed plant the Palma Christi, or "the hand of Christ." Castor oil was viewed as the all-healing agent -- almost divine in nature. Whether or not you are one to practice homeopathic or other natural remedies in the 21st century, the results obtained from Castor oil pack therapy typically speak for themselves - even among critics.

Castor oil is extracted from the seed of the Castor oil plant, whose botanical name is ricinus communis. And while it was Edgar Cayce who made Castor oil well known throughout the U.S. in the 20th century, it has a long history of use as a healing agent around the world. The Journal of Naturopathic Medicine published findings that Castor bean seeds, believed to be 4,000 years old, were found in many Egyptian tombs. Historical documents reveal the medicinal use of Castor oil in India, Africa, Greece, Rome, Egypt (for eye infections), China (for induction of childbirth and expulsion of the placenta), Persia (for epilepsy), Southern Europe, and the Americas.

Today Castor oil pack therapy remains an effective source of relief for a number of maladies. It is used for everything: general aches and pains, colds, flu, sciatica, eye infections, c-section healing, mastitis, arthritis, ulcers, and to decrease soreness/irritation/inflammation of almost any body organ - breasts, nipples, fingers, throats, abdomen, uterine cramping, etc. Castor oil pack therapy has been used to increase milk production among lactating women, and it is occasionally used to quickly and effectively heal the umbilicus of newborns, and is regularly used to stop hormone-related hair loss.

Castor oil pack therapy has also been used in the clinical setting for liver and gallbladder complications, abscesses, headaches, appendicitis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, constipation, intestinal obstructions, hyperactivity, as well as in cases where pregnant women are at high risk of miscarriage.

Women have benefited from Castor oil pack therapy when used to avert breastfeeding issues (such as mastitis, clogged ducts, and general soreness/inflammation), and also to heal from birth (especially beneficial in cases of cesarean section or other healing from surgery). Castor oil has been used to treat ovarian cysts, fibroids, and heavy menstrual cycles.

Dr. Harold J. Reilly (2008) worked with Castor oil pack therapy for 45 years and told of one of his patients who'd been dealing with especially heavy menstrual cycles for 13 years. By the time this woman came to see Reilly, her problem was threatening her career as an opera singer, and had already impacted her home life as a mother and wife. Four leading gynecologists who reviewed her case all recommended surgery - ranging from D&C to total hysterectomy. Instead of surgery, Dr. Reilly put her on a regimen which included castor oil packs four days a week. This woman soon reported, "After the first two nights of the Castor oil packs, the spotting stopped, and this was remarkable, because it was just after my menstrual period, and usually that went on and on. By the end of the week, I sang in a concert and felt fine."


Directions for Use

1) Always use a high-quality, cold-pressed Castor oil, available in health food stores.

2) Use a cotton or wool flannel cloth that is folded to the correct size (for the location you are using the pack on) and is several layers thick when folded.

3) Pour Castor oil into a pan and soak the cloth in the oil.

4) Wring out the cloth so that it remains wet, but not dripping.

5) Apply the cloth to the area which needs treatment.

6) Cover with plastic (saran wrap or even plastic bags cut open work great) and then apply heat if desired (a hot cloth, heat pack, etc.) to increase penetration of Castor oil. Do not use heat if there is already open infection at the site.

7) If you are resting on a bed or couch, towels can be put down to protect the surface you are relaxing on.

8) After the pack is in place, you can wrap a large towel around the body (if using on the abdomen or breast) or a smaller towel (if using on the throat/head). An ace bandage can be used to hold the pack in place on the arm or leg.

9) The pack should remain in place for 60-90 minutes. So r-e-l-a-x. Breath deep. Listen to soothing music. Meditate. Pray. Watch a feel-good movie. Read a book. Whatever helps you stay calm and just let go of your worries for the hour.

10) After 60-90 minutes, the skin should be cleansed with a baking soda solution: 1 teaspoon baking soda to 1 pint water. You can wipe this over the area you treated in the shower (if desired) and shower off.

11) The flannel pack can be re-used several times. Do NOT throw it away. Put it into a ziplock baggie for future uses. It does not need to be rinsed or cleaned. The Castor oil soaked into it is fine to leave as is. Next time, soak again before starting.

12) Repeat these steps daily, or for 4 consecutive days per week (4 days on, 3 days off), until results are obtained.


References

The Oil That Heals (1994) by William McGarey

The Edgar Cayce Handbook for Health Through Drugless Therapy (2008) by Harold J. Reilley and Ruth Hagy

Wise Woman Herbal for the Childbearing Years (1985) by Susun S. Weed


This is a slightly older video (with explanation and demonstration). Castor oil pack therapy need not be this cumbersome (you don't need safety pins, plastic sheets, etc.) but the video will give you another take on the whole process.




~~~~

Common Car Seat Errors

By Lisa Carneal, CPST


Are you properly securing your child into their car seat? The vast majority of parents are not, and most of them are not aware of it.

Below is a comprehensive list of some of the most common errors parents make when installing their child's car seat or buckling their child into it. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death to babies and young children, so it is vital that parents do all they can to make car trips as safe as possible. If you need help to remedy any of these issues or are unsure of how to fix them on your own, please contact a certified child passenger safety technician (CPST) to help you. Even if you think you have everything right, it's always a good idea to have your seats checked. It is a CPST's job to help parents use their car seats properly. If you can't find a CPST with which to have a private appointment to go over your car seat installs, many fire departments have a fitting station with CPSTs available by appointment or during drop-in hours. Check with your local government or health department to see if there is a fitting station in your area.

Go here to find a CPST near you.

You can also visit this message board, frequented by many passionate CPSTs, to ask questions.



COMMON CAR SEAT ERRORS


LATCH and Seat Belt Errors

* Using LATCH in a center seating position when it is not allowed by the manufacturer - most vehicles do not permit you to install a car seat in the center, using the two inner LATCH anchors from the side seating positions. Check your vehicle and child restraint manuals. If nothing is specifically mentioned to allow it, don't do it.

* Using LATCH and a seat belt together - you must use one system or the other, not both. Either method is safe when used correctly, so go with the method that gets you the easiest/best install.

* Not using the top tether anchor when the lower LATCH anchors are used for a forward facing seat - the top tether MUST be used when a seat is installed forward facing with LATCH.

* Using the LATCH system beyond its weight limit - most vehicles and car seats have a weight limit for using LATCH, usually 40 or 48 lb. Check your vehicle and car seat manuals for this information. Sometimes it is not in the vehicle manual and you will need to contact the manufacturer by phone, or ask a CPST to look up the information for you in their LATCH manual. If the vehicle and car seat manuals defer to one another, err on the side of caution and assume a 40 lb limit.

* Incorrect seat belt routing on a booster - make sure to read and follow the instructions for how to route the seat belt correctly over your child. Many boosters have arm rests that need the lap belt routed under them instead of over.

* Seat belt not locked - a seat belt must lock at the retractor or the latchplate to hold a car seat securely. If it locks at the retractor, you must pull the seat belt out as far as it goes and then feed it back into the retractor. Sometimes a ratcheting noise is audible. Gently pull on the belt to test and make sure it is locked. Ask a CPST for help in identifying the locking mechanism on your seat belts if you are unsure.

* Loose car seat install - a car seat must be installed tightly enough that there is an inch or less of movement in all directions at the belt path when pushed or pulled on.

* Incorrect belt path used on convertible seat install - you must use the belt path designated for the type of install you are doing. Usually the rear facing belt path runs under the child's bottom/legs and the forward facing belt path runs behind their back.


Harness Errors

* Harness in the wrong position - straps must come out at or below the shoulders for rear facing; at or above for forward facing.

* Harness twisted - straps must lay completely flat every time the seat is used. A twisted harness will not distribute weight correctly in a crash and could cause injury.

* Harness too loose - straps must be very snug; you should not be able to pinch a horizontal fold in the harness webbing at the child's collar bone

* Improperly routed harness - make sure that the harness is going through the same slots on the cover as on the shell of the seat. This mistake usually happens when the straps are moved to a different slot or when the seat has been taken apart for cleaning.

* Chest clip out of position (usually too low) - the chest clip should be at armpit level at all times.

* Thick coats/snow suits/buntings/seat liners (including the Bundle Me and similar items) - bulky items can cause the harness to be too loose to adequately protect the child, and items that go between the baby and the seat/harness can interfere with correct positioning of the harness. To test the thickness of a clothing item, put it on your child and then strap them into their car seat with the straps tightened normally. Unbuckle them without changing the harness tightness and remove the item of clothing. Strap them in again, still leaving the harness at the same tightness. If you can fit more than one finger under the harness at the collar bone, it's too loose and the item of clothing is too bulky for the car seat. To keep kids warm safely, use fleece jackets/snowsuits/ponchos, "shower cap" type covers for infant seats, or, after the child is securely buckled in, put a blanket on them or put their coat on backwards.


Car Seat Limit Errors

* Forward facing too soon - a child must be at least one year old AND 20 lb before forward facing. Keep in mind that this is a very bare minimum; children are MUCH safer rear facing for as long as possible. Research has shown rear facing in the second year of life to be 5 times safer than forward facing.

* In a booster too soon - children, especially those under 40 lb, are best protected in a 5 point harness. A child must fit the seat belt appropriately and be able to stay correctly positioned in a seat belt for the entire car ride if they are in a booster. Most children under age 5 do not yet have this maturity, and most of them are also too small to get a good fit. Use the harness on your child's forward facing car seat until they outgrow it or at least until 5 years and 40 lb.

* In a seat belt too soon - children need to pass the 5 step test before they can safely ride in an adult seat belt without a booster.
1. Does the child sit all the way back against the auto seat?
2. Do the child's knees bend comfortably at the edge of the auto seat?
3. Does the belt cross the shoulder between the neck and arm?
4. Is the lap belt as low as possible, touching the thighs?
5. Can the child stay seated like this for the whole trip? If the answer to any of these is "no," the child should ride in an appropriate child safety seat or booster.

* Using a seat beyond its limits - read your seat's manuals and labels carefully to be sure your child fits within the limits. Many of them go to 80 or 100 lb as a booster, but only to 40 or 50 lb with the harness. Height limits are more arbitrary since children are all proportioned differently, but weight limits are set in stone. A rear facing seat is generally outgrown when the child reaches the rear facing weight limit OR their head is less than an inch from the top of the car seat's shell. A forward facing harnessed seat is generally outgrown when the child's shoulders are above the top harness slots OR the tops of the child's ears are above the shell of the seat OR or the child reaches the weight limit on the harness, whichever happens first.


General Misuse

* Aftermarket accessories (head positioners, body padding/positioners, strap covers, hanging toys, under car seat mats/upholstery protectors, mirrors, suction cup window shades, seat belt tighteners/ratchets, bunting bags/liners, custom car seat covers, etc.) - if it did not come with your seat or is not specifically allowed by your car seat manual, don't use it. The less "stuff" involved in your car seat install, the better. Nothing extra should go between the car seat and vehicle seat, the baby and the car seat, or the baby and the harness. Toys, mirrors, and window shades can come loose in a crash and injure passengers. Mats can interfere with an install. Many manufacturers will void the seat's warranty if aftermarket products are used. There are no safety standards for these items, so even those that claim to be "crash tested" or "meet all federal safety standards" (there are none!) cannot be trusted as safe.

* Using an expired car seat - car seats are made mostly of molded plastic, which degrades and becomes brittle over time. Because of this, along with ongoing advances in safety research and technology, car seats have an expiration date and should not be used beyond it. Check your car seat's manual and the shell of the seat itself for this information. Most brands have a 6-7 year lifespan from the time of manufacture (NOT from the first use of the seat).

* Using a seat that has been in a crash - due to damage that cannot be seen from looking at the car seat, most manufacturers say to replace their seats after ANY crash, even a minor one. Check your seat's manual to see what the manufacturer's policy is, and always err on the side of caution if you have any doubts.

* Using a seat with unknown history - buying a used seat from a stranger or a consignment shop, or renting a seat can put your child at risk because you don't know if the seat has been maintained appropriately, if it has ever been in a crash, if it has been recalled, etc. Don't put your child in a used car seat unless you can investigate the history of it and trust the previous user's answers with your child's life.

* Improperly cleaning a car seat - most seats have a removable cover that is hand or machine washable, but harness/LATCH/tether straps should NEVER be washed in a washing machine or with harsh cleaners. This can stretch them or otherwise weaken the fibers. Check your seat's manual for specific instructions on what can be done to clean your seat's straps. If they are beyond cleaning, you can usually order a replacement set from the manufacturer. Be very careful to reassemble the seat correctly after cleaning it.

* Using a car seat for a function it does not perform - make sure you follow the instructions for your seat. Infant seats should NEVER be installed forward facing, and convertible seats that do not become boosters should not be used as a booster.




Related articles:

Do You Use Your Carseat Correctly?


Car Seat Safety: Rear Facing as Long as Possible

Car Seats are for Cars

AAP: Car Seats Lower Oxygen Levels


American Academy of Pediatrics on "Bucket Babies" and SIDS

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